Deep Learning and Neurology: A Systematic Review

AbstractDeciphering the massive volume of complex electronic data that has been compiled by hospital systems over the past decades has the potential to revolutionize modern medicine, as well as present significant challenges. Deep learning is uniquely suited to address these challenges, and recent advances in techniques and hardware have poised the field of medical machine learning for transformational growth. The clinical neurosciences are particularly well positioned to benefit from these advances given the subtle presentation of symptoms typical of neurologic disease. Here we review the various domains in which deep learning algorithms have already provided impetus for change —areas such as medical image analysis for the improved diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease and the early detection of acute neurologic events; medical image segmentation for quantitative evaluation of neuroanatomy and vasculature; connectome mapping for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, autism spectr um disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; and mining of microscopic electroencephalogram signals and granular genetic signatures. We additionally note important challenges in the integration of deep learning tools in the clinical setting and discuss the barriers to tackling the chal lenges that currently exist.
Source: Neurology and Therapy - Category: Neurology Source Type: research

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AbstractObjectiveTo study the prevalence of epilepsy and Inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IED) in children with Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the factors associated with occurrence of epilepsy in these children.MethodsChildren between 6 and 12 y attending the Child Development Centre of a tertiary-care institute in India were evaluated for ASD and ADHD as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5). Childhood Autism Rating Scale was used to assess ASD severity,  and Conner’s Rating Scales were used to sub-classify ch...
Source: Indian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
FRIDAY, Sept. 20, 2019 -- Women who suffer from anemia early in pregnancy are at risk for having a child with autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and intellectual disabilities, a study by Swedish researchers suggests. The study...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
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Source: Developmental Neuropsychology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Chromosome conformation capture methods have revealed the dynamics of genome architecture which is spatially organized into topologically associated domains, with gene regulation mediated by enhancer-promoter pairs in chromatin space. New evidence shows that endogenous hormones and several xenobiotics act within circumscribed topological domains of the spatial genome, impacting subsets of the chromatin contacts of enhancer-gene promoter pairs in cis and trans Results from the National Institutes of Health-funded PsychENCODE project and the study of chromatin remodeling complexes have converged to provide ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research
WEDNESDAY, Sept. 18, 2019 -- Anemia diagnosed during the first 30 weeks of pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and intellectual disability (ID),...
Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
This cohort study examines whether maternal anemia during pregnancy is associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability in youths.
Source: JAMA Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The findings provide further evidence that ADHD and ASD are associated in nature. Clinical and research implications are discussed. PMID: 31530292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
This study investigated potential sex differences with age in social adaptive function across these disorders, relative to controls.Method: One hundred fifteen youth with ASD, 172 youth with ADHD, and 63 typically developing controls (age range 7–13 years, 75% males) were recruited from the Province of Ontario Neurodevelopmental Disorder (POND) Network. Social adaptive function was assessed using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II). The proportions of adaptive behaviors present in each skill area were analyzed as a binomial outcome using logistic regression, controlling for age, and testi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are the two most common neurodevelopmental disorders observed in childhood. The DSM-5 accepts a combined diagnosis of ADHD and ASD, while the DSM-IV did not. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the adaptive profile of children and adolescents with a diagnosis of comorbid ADHD and ASD, in comparison with adaptive functioning in subjects with a diagnosis of only ASD or ADHD. Ninety-one children (77 boys, 14 girls), aging from 3.1 to 13.4 years (mean age: 8.3 ± 7.2), who met the criteria for a diagnosis of ASD and/or ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CASE: Alex is a 14-year-old Portuguese-American boy with a psychiatric history starting at age 5 who presents to your primary care practice after an insurance change. He was delivered prematurely at 32 weeks and diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism at the age of 6 weeks and growth hormone deficiency at the age of 2 years; he is in active treatment for both. He otherwise met developmental milestones on time yet continues to have significant fatigue despite adequate sleep and vitamin D supplementation. His family history is remarkable for maternal anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and previous attempted suicide...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
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