Insect repellents: An updated review for the clinician

Malaria, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Dengue fever, and Lyme disease are common causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. While arthropod bites may cause local inflammation and discomfort, a greater concern is the potential to develop deadly systemic infection. Prevention of systemic infections by use of insect repellent (IR) constitutes one of the most critical aspects of public health efforts. Cost-effectiveness, availability, and high-efficacy against arthropod vectors are the key characteristics of an ideal IR.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

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This report shares key lessons learned for community engagement practices during a malaria outbreak response in the Los Tres Brazos neighborhood of urban Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic from 2015-2016. In this two-year period, 233 cases of malaria were reported-more than seven times the number of cases (31) reported in the previous two years. The initial outbreak response by the national malaria program emphasized "top-down" interventions such as active surveillance, vector control, and educative talks within the community. Despite a transient reduction in reported cases in mid-2015, transmission resurged at th...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2020Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - BiomembranesAuthor(s): Kumar Udit Saumya, Deepak Kumar, Prateek Kumar, Rajanish Giri
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: 8 August 2020Source: New Scientist, Volume 247, Issue 3294Author(s): Alice Klein
Source: New Scientist - Category: Science Source Type: research
Timber rattlesnakes, which are a species of conservation concern and threatened or endangered in many states in the U.S., play an important role in the ecosystem and are associated with decreased levels of Lyme disease. [Research supported by a U.S. National Science Foundation Graduate Research ...This is an NSF Multimedia Gallery item.
Source: NSF Multimedia Gallery - Category: Science Source Type: video
Rising chorus of concern over Sputnik V vaccine stems from opaque development and lack of mass testingCoronavirus – latest updatesSee all our coronavirus coverageIn 1977, Scott Halstead, a virologist at the University of Hawaii, was studying dengue fever when he noticed a now well-known but then unexpected feature of the disease.Animals that had already been exposed to one of the four closely related viruses that cause dengue and produced antibodies to it, far from being protected against other versions, became sicker when infected a second time, and it was the antibodies produced by the first infection that were res...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Coronavirus outbreak Science World news Russia Europe Source Type: news
Plasmodium vivax has the largest geographic range of human malaria species and is challenging to manage and eradicate due to its ability to establish a dormant liver stage, the hypnozoite, which can reactivate leading to relapse. Until recently, the only treatment approved to kill hypnozoites was the 8-aminoquinoline, primaquine, requiring daily treatment for 14 days. Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline single-dose treatment with activity against P. vivax hypnozoites, has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration for the radical cure of P. vivax malari...
Source: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
Authors: Varo R, Balanza N, Mayor A, Bassat Q Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, with over 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential to decrease the burden and impact of this disease, particularly in children. We aimed to review the main available techniques for the diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings and explore possible future options to improve its rapid recognition. AREAS COVERED: literature relevant to malaria diagnosis was identified through electronic searches in Pubmed, w...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Mosquito bites may be a nuisance, but fortunately, in the U.S., they tend to amount to nothing more than that. Upon being bitten, most Americans experience a bit of swelling and itchiness, and nothing more. However, there are exceptions to this, including stronger allergic reactions to bites and cases of mosquito-borne illness.  Insect and arachnid bites, including ticks, account for approximately 2,000 cases of malaria and 30,000 cases of Lyme disease in the U.S. annually. In addition, millions of people worldwide die of malaria each year. It is helpful to protect yourself against insect bites, not only to avoid pesk...
Source: Conversations with Dr Greene - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Dr. Greene's Blog Environmental Health Insect Bites & Stings Insects & Animals Outdoor Safety Source Type: blogs
Malaria, Zika virus, West Nile virus, Dengue fever, and Lyme disease are common causes of morbidity and mortality around the world. While arthropod bites may cause local inflammation and discomfort, a greater concern is the potential to develop deadly systemic infection. The use of insect repellents (IR) to prevent systemic infections constitutes a fundamental public health effort. Cost-effectiveness, availability, and high-efficacy against arthropod vectors are key characteristics of an ideal IR.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Authors: Source Type: research
For most of us, springtime marks the return of life to a dreary landscape, bringing birdsong, trees in bud, and daffodils in bloom. But if you work for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the coming of spring means the return of nasty diseases spread by ticks and mosquitoes. The killjoys at CDC celebrated the end of winter with a bummer of a paper showing that infections spread by ticks doubled in the United States from 2004 to 2016. (Tick populations have exploded in recent decades, perhaps due to climate change and loss of biodiversity.) Lyme disease The most common infection spread by ticks in the US i...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Source Type: blogs
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