Parasite-Produced MIF Cytokine: Role in Immune Evasion, Invasion, and Pathogenesis

Protozoan parasites represent a major threat to health and contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. This is further compounded by lack of effective vaccines, drug resistance and toxicity associated with current therapies. Multiple protozoans, including Plasmodium, Entamoeba, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania produce homologs of the cytokine MIF. These parasite MIF homologs are capable of altering the host immune response during infection, and play a role in immune evasion, invasion and pathogenesis. This minireview outlines well-established and emerging literature on the role of parasite MIF homologs in disease, and their potential as targets for therapeutic and preventive interventions.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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This study represents a definitive characterization of the role of IL-32γ in the trained phenotype induced by β-glucan or BCG, the results of which improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing trained immunity and Leishmania infection control.Graphical Abstract
Source: Cell Reports - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Abstract Leishmaniasis is second most neglected disease after malaria and seems to be a worldwide concern because of increased drug resistance and non-availability of approved vaccine. The underlying molecular mechanism of drug resistance (Amp B) in Leishmania parasites still remains elusive. Herein, the present study investigated differentially expressed secreted proteins of Amphotericin B sensitive (S) and resistant (R) isolate of Leishmania donovani by using label free quantitative LC-MS/MS approach. A total of 406 differentially expressed secreted proteins were found between sensitive (S) and resistant (R) iso...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research
Vaccination remains one of the greatest medical breakthroughs in human history and has resulted in the near eradication of many formerly lethal diseases in many countries, including the complete eradication of smallpox. However, there remain a number of diseases for which there are no or only partially effective vaccines. There are numerous hurdles in vaccine development, of which knowing the appropriate immune response to target is one of them. Recently, tissue-resident T cells have been shown to mediate high levels of protection for several infections, although the best way to induce these cells is still unclear. Here we...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
J, Domínguez-Bernal G Abstract HisAK70 candidates have successfully been tested in cutaneous (CL) and visceral leishmaniosis (VL) mouse models. Here, we analyse different biomarkers in dog trials after a heterologous immunization strategy with a HisAK70 candidate (plasmid DNA plus adoptive transfer of peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with the same pathoantigen and CpG ODN as an adjuvant) to explore the antileishmanial activity in an ex vivo canine co-culture system in the presence of Leishmania infantum parasites. In the canine model, the heterologous HisAK70 vaccine could decrease the...
Source: Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis Source Type: research
Abstract The outcome of Leishmania infection depends on the parasite species and the host immune response. Virulence factors have been extensively studied over the years in an effort to find efficient vaccines and/or treatments for Leishmania infection. Arginase activity in Leishmania has been described as an essential player for the polyamines pathway, impacting parasite replication and infectivity. Considering previous studies showing that the absence of arginase activity leads to low infectivity of Leishmania amazonensis, we reanalyzed transcriptomic data comparing both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes from...
Source: Current Opinion in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Curr Opin Microbiol Source Type: research
Analyst, 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9AN00948E, PaperMorgana Vital de Ara újo, Aline Cavalcanti de Queiroz, João F. M. Silva, Amanda E. Silva, João K. S. Silva, Girliane R. Silva, Elaine C. O. Silva, Samuel T Souza, Eduardo J. S. Fonseca, Celso Camara, Tania M. S. Silva, Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira Leishmaniasis is a complex of infectious diseases with worldwide distribution of which both the visceral and cutaneous forms are caused by Leishmania parasites. In the absence of vaccines, efficacious chemotherapy... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Source: RSC - Analyst latest articles - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 June 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): A.J. Mbekeani, R.S. Jones, M. Bassas Llorens, J. Elliot, C. Regnault, M.P. Barrett, J. Steele, B. Kebede, S.K. Wrigley, L. Evans, P.W. DennyAbstractLeishmaniasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease caused by the insect-vector borne protozoan parasite, Leishmania species. Infection affects millions of the World's poorest, however vaccines are absent and drug therapy limited. Recently, public-private partnerships have developed to identify new modes of controlling leishmaniasis. Most of these collabo...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
AbstractWe used TSA as a principal antigen ofLeishmania major with adjuvants. The aim of this research was to assess the efficacy of protein vaccine in the presence of Montanide vis- à-vis chitosan nanoparticle. The expression of recombinant protein was confirmed with SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfate) page and Western blotting. A total of 36 BALB/c mice were divided into six groups (TSA/high chitosan, TSA/low chitosan, TSA/Montanide, high chitosan, low chitosan, and PBS groups) and subcutaneously immunized with 20 mg of vaccine at three time intervals on days 0, 14, and 28. The mice were challenged with parasites 21...
Source: Comparative Clinical Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Authors: Ertabaklar H, Çalışkan SÖ, Kolli B, Ertuğ S, Özbilgin A, Malatyalı E, Chang KP Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a parasitic disease transmitted by vector sand flies Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. This disease is characterized by long time non-healing skin lesions, and caused by Leishmania species. CL is the most common infection in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia in Turkey and L.tropica is known as the main agent of the disease. Number of cases is increasing in our country in time because of malnutrition, migration, travel, low socioeconomic level and ecological changes. For the ...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
In conclusion, this hypothetical protein can be considered as antigenic in TL and VL, as well as a vaccine candidate to be tested in future studies to protect against disease. PMID: 31164242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunobiology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunobiology Source Type: research
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