The RpoS Gatekeeper in Borrelia burgdorferi: An Invariant Regulatory Scheme That Promotes Spirochete Persistence in Reservoir Hosts and Niche Diversity

Maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi within its enzootic cycle requires a complex regulatory pathway involving the alternative  factors RpoN and RpoS and two ancillary trans-acting factors, BosR and Rrp2. Activation of this pathway occurs within ticks during the nymphal blood meal when RpoS, the effector  factor, transcribes genes required for tick transmission and mammalian infection. RpoS also exerts a ‘gatekeeper’ function by repressing 70-dependent tick phase genes (e.g., ospA, lp6.6). Herein, we undertook a broad examination of RpoS functionality throughout the enzootic cycle, beginning with modeling to confirm that this alternative  factor is a ‘genuine’ RpoS homolog. Using a novel dual color reporter system, we established at the single spirochete level that ospA is expressed in nymphal midguts throughout transmission and is not downregulated until spirochetes have been transmitted to a naïve host. Although it is well established that rpoS/RpoS is expressed throughout infection, its requirement for persistent infection has not been demonstrated. Plasmid retention studies using a trans-complemented rpoS mutant demonstrated that (i) RpoS is required for maximal fitness throughout the mammalian phase and (ii) RpoS represses tick phase genes until spirochetes are acquired by a naïve vector. By transposon mutant screening, we established that bba34/oppA5, the only OppA oligopeptide-binding protein controlled by RpoS, is a bona...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Authors: Brodziński S, Nasierowski T Abstract In the second part of the article case reports of three patients were presented. All patientswere treated for Borrelia infection and all of them developed psychotic disorders. History of each patient was different, as well as the probability of causal relationship between neuroborreliosis and psychosis. The first case concerns a female patient with no former psychiatric history, who developed psychotic episode secondary to neuroborreliosis. Psychotic disorders resolved after antibiotic treatment. In the second case, a male patient was previously twice hospitalized in p...
Source: Psychiatria Polska - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Pol Source Type: research
Authors: Brodziński S, Nasierowski T Abstract Borreliosis is a multisystem, bacterial, zoonotic infectious disease with diversified spectrumof symptoms, which may also include psychotic disorders. Clinical picture of the disease is often unspecific, which makes the diagnosis relatively difficult. Uncharacteristic process of borreliosis is a result of complex molecular strategies used by spirochetes to infect, disseminate and survive in host organism. Part I of the article is focused on the current knowledge about pathogenesis of Lyme Borreliosis (LB), especially neuroborreliosis. Additionally, epidemic situation i...
Source: Psychiatria Polska - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatr Pol Source Type: research
The periplasmic lipoprotein BB0365 of the Lyme disease agentBorrelia burgdorferi is expressed throughout mammalian infection and is essential for all phases of Lyme disease infection; its function, however, remains unknown. In the current study, our structural analysis of BB0365 revealed the same structural fold as that found in the NqrC and RnfG subunits of the NADH:quinone and ferredoxin:NAD+ sodium ‐translocating oxidoreductase complexes, which points to a potential role for BB0365 as a component of the sodium pump. Additionally, BB0365 coordinated Zn2+ by the His51, His55, His140 residues, and the Zn2+‐binding...
Source: FEBS Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
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Source: FEBS Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, is internalized by macrophages and processed in phagolysosomes. Phagosomal compaction, a crucial step in phagolysosome maturation, is driven by contact of Rab5a-positive vesicles with the phagosomal coat. We show that the sorting nexin SNX3 is transported with Rab5a vesicles and that its PX domain enables vesicle–phagosome contact by binding to PI(3)P in the phagosomal coat. Moreover, the C-terminal region of SNX3 recruits galectin-9, a lectin implicated in protein and membrane recycling, which we identify as a further regulator of phagosome co...
Source: Journal of Cell Biology - Category: Cytology Authors: Tags: Trafficking, Immunology Articles Source Type: research
This study was aimed to know epidemiological aspects of Borrelia spp. in a protected urban area of Buenos Aires city, Argentina, where thousands of people visit this area for recreational purposes. Ticks were collected from vegetation, birds and dogs. Three hundred and forty birds belonging to 43 species, 41 genera, 18 families and six orders were captured (90.3% corresponded to the order Passeriformes). One hundred and twenty ticks were collected from 47 birds (13.8%) belonging to 10 species (23.2%), all of them from to the order Passeriformes (Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Parulidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae). Tic...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In this study, B. burgdorferi-negative dogs were inoculated with B. turicatae, and seroconversion was confirmed by the rBipA (recombinant Borrelia immunogenic protein A) Western blot. Seropositive samples were tested with commercial and veterinary diagnostic laboratory B. burgdorferi-based tests. Borrelia turicatae-seroreactive samples cross-reacted with a whole-cell indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and two multiantigen tests, but not with single-antigen tests using C6. Cross-reactivity with TBRF can confound epidemiology and surveillance efforts and confuse recommendations made by veterinarians for prevention and ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Immunoassays Source Type: research
Lyme disease is an infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi after it is transmitted to a mammalian organism during a tick blood meal. B.   burgdorferi encodes at least 140 lipoproteins located on the outer or inner membrane, thus facing the surroundings or the periplasmic space, respectively. However, most of the predicted lipoproteins are of unknown function, and only a few proteins are known to be essential for the persistence and virulence of the pathogen. One such protein is the periplasmic BB0323, which is indispensable for B. burgdorferi to cause Lyme disease and the function of which is associate...
Source: Acta Crystallographica Section D - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: lipoprotein spectrin superfamily cell fission Lyme disease X-ray crystallography Borrelia burgdorferi research papers Source Type: research
Introduction: Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a late cutaneous manifestation of Lyme disease characterized by inflammatory lesions that slowly progress to atrophic plaques. The vast majority of ACA cases have been described in Europe and are associated to the genospecies Borrelia afzelii (B. afzelii). We hereby report the first case in Northern Mexico of ACA caused by locally acquired B. afzelii.
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a tick-borne disease caused by spirochetes belonging to the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species. Due to a variety of clinical manifestations, diagnosing LB can be challenging, and lab...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Study protocol Source Type: research
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