Animal Models of Hirschsprung's Disease: State of the Art in Translating Experimental Research to the Bedside
Eur J Pediatr Surg DOI: 10.1055/s-0039-1694745Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is caused by incomplete colonization of enteric neural crest-derived cell (ENCC) in the bowel, the failure of ENCCs to proliferate, differentiate, and migrate leads to an absence of enteric neurons in the distal colon, resulting in colonic motility dysfunction. Various animal models of HSCR have been important in the understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the disease and in the discovery of genes involved in HSCR. Four types of HSCR animal models have been developed: teratogen-induced, surgically created, naturally occurring models, and knockout models. Mutations in several genes affect enteric nervous system (ENS) development and can have pleiotropic effects on this system. Furthermore, certain animal models are informative regarding how such molecules control the development and functional differentiation of the ENS. In this article, we summarize recent advances in this field and highlight opportunities for new discoveries. [...] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New YorkArticle in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents | Abstract | Full text
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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