N-acetylcysteine Prevents the Decreases in Cardiac Collagen I/III ratio and Systolic Function in Neonatal Mice with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

N-acetylcysteine Prevents the Decreases in Cardiac Collagen I/III ratio and Systolic Function in Neonatal Mice with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Toxicol Lett. 2019 Aug 16;: Authors: Ninh VK, El Hajj EC, Ronis MJ, Gardner JD Abstract Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is often associated with congenital heart defects, most commonly septal, valvular, and great vessel defects. However, there have been no known studies on whether PAE affects the resulting fibroblast population after development, and whether this has any consequences in the postnatal period. Our previous study focused on the effects of PAE on the postnatal fibroblast population, which translated into changes in cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and cardiac function in the neonatal heart. Moreover, our lab has previously demonstrated that alcohol-induced fibrosis is mediated by oxidative stress mechanisms in adult rat hearts following chronic alcohol exposure. Thus, we hypothesize that PAE alters cardiac ECM composition that persists into the postnatal period, leading to cardiac dysfunction, and these effects are prevented by antioxidant treatment. To investigate these effects, pregnant mice were intraperitoneally injected with 2.9 g EtOH/kg body weight on gestation days 6.75 and 7.5. Controls were injected with vehicle saline. Randomly selected dams in both groups were then treated with 100 mg/kg body weight of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) immediately after EtO...
Source: Toxicology Letters - Category: Toxicology Authors: Tags: Toxicol Lett Source Type: research

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This study fills that gap by including all mothers in specified areas. A cohort study examines MLH in Cape Town, South Africa recruited in pregnancy and followed repeatedly for 5  years, compared to MWOH. Almost all (98%) pregnant women in 12 neighborhoods (N = 594) were recruited in pregnancy. Mothers and children were reassessed five times over 5 years with high retention rates at each of the six assessments, from 98.7% at 2 weeks to 82.8% at 5 years post-birth. ML H’s uptake and adherence to HIV care was evaluated over time associated with maternal comorbidities of alcohol use, de...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial stress during pregnancy, as indicated by self-reported questionnaire measures, was not associated with biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PROTECT study. However, results suggest that these biomarkers are elevated among women of lower SES, which is typically associated with stress. Notably, compared to other populations, self-reported psychosocial stress measures were lower in PROTECT compared to other populations. PMID: 31369838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: While HD rates were low, maternal/caregiver alcohol use negatively impacted on parenting and children's behavioural/cognitive outcomes. International evidence suggests that integrated approaches engaging parents and families may be more effective for parent-child outcomes than individual psychiatric or medical care for the parent on their own. PMID: 31266581 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research
Conclusion Depressive symptomatology was associated with an increase in self-reported the use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana during pregnancy. These data reveal the importance of targeted screening of pregnant women with depressive symptomatology for substance use. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
In this study, a link between mitochondrial changes and infant temperament has also been suggested. Maternal psychosocial stress and lifetime trauma have been associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the placenta (115, 116).IndividualityChronic stress links changes in the epigenetic landscape with health conditions (117). Different cell types are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression due to developmental, environmental, physiological, and pathological reasons (117). Epigenetic mechanisms affect gene function in a dynamic way as a result of different environmental exposures during fetal dev...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
ConclusionThe research project aims to directly improve identification and support of vulnerable children across selected regions in Austria, and by doing so, improve the health and well-being of future Austrian generations while breaking the cycle of intergenerational transfer of adverse childhood experiences. The described project underwent a rigorous public review process (https://ois.lbg.ac.at/en/methods-projects/crowdsourcing-research-questions-in-science) with different stakeholders as well as people with lived experience and scientific experts of the field having reviewed our proposal (https://ois.lbg.ac.at/en/metho...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Katherine Samaras1,2,3*, Henrik Tevaerai4, Michel Goldman5, Johannes le Coutre6,7 and Jeff M. P. Holly8 1Department of Endocrinology, St Vincent's Hospital, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 2Diabetes and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 3St Vincent's Hospital, St Vincent's Clinical School, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia 4Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland 5Institute for Interdisciplinary Innovation in Healthcare, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, Belgium 6Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom 7Nes...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Reared together maternal half-siblings differ in their paternal genetic endowment, sharing the same mother, family, school and community. They can help clarify the nature of paternal genetic effects and produce results consistent with other designs. Paternal genetic risk for DA and AUD have effects on offspring educational achievement, child and adult psychopathology, and possibly prenatal development. The impact of paternal genetic risk for MD is narrower in scope. PMID: 30992087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Does Prenatal Stress Shape Postnatal Resilience? – An Epigenome-Wide Study on Violence and Mental Health in Humans Fernanda Serpeloni1,2, Karl M. Radtke1,3, Tobias Hecker4, Johanna Sill1, Vanja Vukojevic5, Simone G. de Assis2, Maggie Schauer1, Thomas Elbert1 and Daniel Nätt6* 1Clinical Psychology and Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany 2Department of Studies in Violence and Health Jorge Careli, National School of Public Health of Rio de Janeiro – National Institute of Women, Children and Adolescents Health Fernandes Figueira, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, ...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Conclusion The expression of the components of the PTN-MK-RPTPβ/ζ axis in immune cells and in inflammatory diseases suggests important roles for this axis in inflammation. Pleiotrophin has been recently identified as a limiting factor of metainflammation, a chronic pathological state that contributes to neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Pleiotrophin also seems to potentiate acute neuroinflammation independently of the inflammatory stimulus while MK seems to play different -even opposite- roles in acute neuroinflammation depending on the stimulus. Which are the functions of MK and PTN in chronic neuroinfla...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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