Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 766: Inhibition of Influenza A Virus by Human Infant Saliva

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 766: Inhibition of Influenza A Virus by Human Infant Saliva Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11080766 Authors: Brad Gilbertson Kathryn Edenborough Jodie McVernon Lorena E. Brown Innate antiviral factors in saliva play a role in protection against respiratory infections. We tested the anti-influenza virus activities of saliva samples taken from human infants, 1–12 months old, with no history of prior exposure to influenza. In contrast to the inhibitory activity we observed in mouse and ferret saliva, the activity of human infant saliva was complex, with both sialic acid-dependent and independent components, the proportion of which differed between individuals. Taken as a whole, we showed that the major anti-influenza activity of infant saliva is acquired over the first year of life and is associated with sialic acid-containing molecules. The activity of sialic acid-independent inhibitors was lower overall, more variable between individuals, and less dependent on age. The results show that the saliva of very young infants can provide a degree of protection against influenza, which may be critical in the absence of adaptive immunity.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Contributors : Ogan K Kumova ; Joshua C Mell ; Alison J CareySeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Mus musculusRespiratory viral infections contribute substantially to global infant losses and disproportionately affect preterm neonates. Using our previously established neonatal murine model of influenza infection, we demonstrate that three-day old mice are exceptionally sensitive to influenza virus infection and exhibit high mortality and viral load. Intranasal pre- and post-treatment of neonatal mice with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), an immune modulator in respiratory viral infection of adult mice and...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by array Mus musculus Source Type: research
Authors: Autran B Abstract The aging population raises a number of public health issues including a need to address the severity and frequency of infections observed in older people. Vaccines play an important role in prevention. However, immunosenescence alters the intensity and quality of vaccine responses, thus limiting the impact of recommendations directed after 65 years for vaccination against flu, pneumococci, pertussis, tetanus and zoster. Immunosenescence, aggravated by co-morbidities, varies with age, becoming apparent after 60-65 years and more profound after 85 years. All stages of vaccine responses are...
Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Rev Mal Respir Source Type: research
Rapidly evolving pathogens like influenza viruses can persist by changing their antigenic properties fast enough to evade the adaptive immunity, yet they rarely split into diverging lineages. By mapping the multi-strain Susceptible-Infected-Recovered model onto the traveling wave model of adapting populations, we demonstrate that persistence of a rapidly evolving, Red-Queen-like state of the pathogen population requires long-ranged cross-immunity and sufficiently large population sizes. This state is unstable and the population goes extinct or 'speciates' into two pathogen strains with antigenic divergence beyond the range...
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Physics of Living Systems Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results indicate that DuSTING is an essential IFN mediator and plays a role in anti-RNA virus innate immunity.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractWidespread geographic movement and extensive comingling of exhibition swine facilitates the spread and transmission of infectious pathogens. Nasal samples were collected from 2862 pigs at 102 exhibitions and tested for five pathogens. At least one pathogen was molecularly detected in pigs at 63 (61.8%) exhibitions. Influenza A virus was most prevalent and was detected in 498 (17.4%) samples. Influenza D virus was detected in two (0.07%) samples. More than one pathogen was detected in 165 (5.8%) samples. Influenza A virus remains a top threat to animal and human health, but other pathogens may be disseminated throug...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 18 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02754-7Adoption of molecular tests for influenza has been slow — partly because of their high cost.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 18 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02757-4Farms help to spread influenza but they might be an early warning system for the next human pandemic.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 18 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02750-xScience targets an evasive virus.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
Vaccination is an effective strategy to control influenza disease. Adjuvants enhance the efficacy of vaccines, but few adjuvants are approved for human use, so novel, safe, and effective adjuvants are urgently needed. The glycolipid adjuvant 7DW8-5 has shown adjuvanticity to malaria vaccine; however, its adjuvant effect for seasonal influenza vaccine remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the adjuvanticity of 7DW8-5 to a quadrivalent split influenza vaccine in a mouse model. 7DW8-5 significantly enhanced virus-specific antibody production when administrated with influenza vaccine compared with that of vaccine alone; 10 μg ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Nature, Published online: 18 September 2019; doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02753-8Understanding how the influenza virus replicates inside the body is helping researchers develop a wider range of antiviral drugs.
Source: Nature AOP - Category: Research Authors: Source Type: research
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