Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 762: Viruses and Autoimmunity: A Review on the Potential Interaction and Molecular Mechanisms
Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 762: Viruses and Autoimmunity: A Review on the Potential Interaction and Molecular Mechanisms Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11080762 Authors: Maria K. Smatti Farhan S. Cyprian Gheyath K. Nasrallah Asmaa A. Al Thani Ruba O. Almishal Hadi M. Yassine For a long time, viruses have been shown to modify the clinical picture of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), celiac disease (CD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Best examples of viral infections that have been proposed to modulate the induction and development of autoimmune diseases are the infections with enteric viruses such as Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rotavirus, as well as influenza A viruses (IAV), and herpesviruses. Other viruses that have been studied in this context include, measles, mumps, and rubella. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animal have shown that viral infections can induce or protect from autoimmunopathologies depending on several factors including genetic background, host-elicited immune responses, type of virus strain, viral load, and the onset time of infection. Still, data delineating the clear mechanistic interaction between the virus and the immune system to induce autoreactivity are scarce. Available data indicate that viral-induced autoimmunity can be activated through multipl...
Already marketed as a medical food, the formulation which replaces gut bacteria that are deficient in type 2 diabetes appears to lower postprandial blood glucose levels and A1c.Medscape Medical News
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Autoimmunity ReviewsAuthor(s): Arnon Blum, Mohammad Adawi
In this study, we showed that hyper-O-GlcNAcylation reduced the expression of myogenin, a transcription factor critical for terminal muscle development, in C2C12 myoblasts differentiation by O-GlcNAcylation on Thr9 of myocyte-specific enhancer factor 2c. Furthermore, we showed that O-GlcNAcylation on Mef2c inhibited its DNA binding affinity to myogenin promoter. Taken together, we demonstrated that hyper-O-GlcNAcylation attenuates skeletal muscle differentiation by increased O-GlcNAcylation on Mef2c, which downregulates its DNA binding affinity. PMID: 32736694 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
In this study, we evaluated the effect of leonurine on dexamethasone -treated β-cells. Our data showed that leonurine inhibited dexamethasone-induced INS-1 cell apoptosis and facilitated cell proliferation. Moreover, leonurine attenuated dexamethasone-impaired insulin secretion in mice islets. Leonurine ameliorated dexamethasone-induced dephosphorylation of Akt, Bad and GSK-3β. Importantly, the protective role of leonurine on dexamethasone-induced cytotoxicity was blocked by LY294002 in INS-1 cells. Our findings revealed for the first time that leonurine could protect against dexamethasone-induced cytot...
In this study, we observed that (EX-4)2-Fc also has anti-inflammatory functions in adipose tissue. After the treatment of diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice with (EX-4)2-Fc, we found that the inflammatory response in adipose tissue was significantly attenuated. (Ex-4)2-Fc can reduce obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokine levels and macrophage numbers in DIO mice. In addition, (EX-4)2-Fc treatment resulted in proinflammatory M1-type macrophages beginning to transform into anti-inflammatory M2-type macrophages. The inflammatory mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-&kappa...
CONCLUSION: miR-182-5p mimic therapy inhibits the pathogenic Th17 response in EAU mice. miR-182-5p's inhibition of TAF15 negatively regulates Th17 cell development by suppressing STAT3 phosphorylation. As TAF15 shows a positive relationship with Th17 cell markers in uveitis patients, the miR-182-5p/TAF15 axis shows promise as a therapeutic target for uveitis. PMID: 32736708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Dagmara Bialy, Holly Shelton
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2020Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Peter G. Mohr, Janelle Williams, Masato Tashiro, Victor A. Streltsov, Jennifer L. McKimm-Breschkin
ConclusionsThe overlap of people with IFG, IGT and elevated HbA1c is small, and some factors are associated with only one criterion. Knowledge on sociodemographic and socioeconomic risk factors can be used to effectively target interventions to people at high risk for type 2 diabetes.