Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 762: Viruses and Autoimmunity: A Review on the Potential Interaction and Molecular Mechanisms

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 762: Viruses and Autoimmunity: A Review on the Potential Interaction and Molecular Mechanisms Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11080762 Authors: Maria K. Smatti Farhan S. Cyprian Gheyath K. Nasrallah Asmaa A. Al Thani Ruba O. Almishal Hadi M. Yassine For a long time, viruses have been shown to modify the clinical picture of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjögren’s syndrome (SS), herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), celiac disease (CD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Best examples of viral infections that have been proposed to modulate the induction and development of autoimmune diseases are the infections with enteric viruses such as Coxsackie B virus (CVB) and rotavirus, as well as influenza A viruses (IAV), and herpesviruses. Other viruses that have been studied in this context include, measles, mumps, and rubella. Epidemiological studies in humans and experimental studies in animal have shown that viral infections can induce or protect from autoimmunopathologies depending on several factors including genetic background, host-elicited immune responses, type of virus strain, viral load, and the onset time of infection. Still, data delineating the clear mechanistic interaction between the virus and the immune system to induce autoreactivity are scarce. Available data indicate that viral-induced autoimmunity can be activated through multipl...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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In this study, a smartphone camera using an image-based colorimetric detection method was successfully developed for quantitative analysis of urine glucose. A horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide-3,3'5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (HRP-H2O2-TMB) system was optimized for a reliable and gradual color fading process via a glucose oxidase (GOD) catalyzed oxidation reaction. The color changes of the peroxidase-H2O2 enzymatic reactions in the 96-well microplate were captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of red, green, and blue (RGB) intensities decreasing at each image pixel. The highly quantitative relati...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Abstract This work presents a reliable analytical procedure combining micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry to determine 8-iso prostaglandin F2α, 8-iso prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin E2 in dried blood spots (DBSs). To reach this goal, we optimized a fast semi-automated MEPS procedure for the clean-up and pre-concentration of the analytes extracted from a single DBS (50 μL) by a 70:30 v/v methanol:water mixture. Limits of detection of about 20 pg mL-1, satisfactory recoveries (90-110%) and very g...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNA) involve in regulating different physiological processes whose dysregulation is associated with a wide range of diseases including cancers, diabetes and cardiovascular problems. Herein, we report a direct, sensitive and highly selective detection assay for circulating microRNA (miRNA). This detection strategy employs magnetic nanoparticles as the reaction platform which can not only allow online pre-concentration and selective separation but also integrates ligation reaction with amplification to enhance the sensitivity of the detection assay. With the presence of the target miRNA, the lo...
Source: Talanta - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Talanta Source Type: research
SYNDROMES OF KETOSIS-PRONE DIABETES. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:145-155 Authors: Balasubramanyam A Abstract Ketosis-prone diabetes (KPD) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by patients who present with diabetic ketoacidosis but lack the phenotype of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Here I review progress in our understanding of KPD and its place in the expanding universe of "atypical diabetes." I focus on investigations of our collaborative research group at Baylor College of Medicine and the University of Washington using a longitudinally followed, heterogeneous, multiethnic co...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
TARGETING TARGETED TREATMENT FOR IMMUNE AND NON-IMMUNE KIDNEY DISEASES. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2019;130:88-99 Authors: Tsokos GC, Tsokos MG Abstract We have found that calcium calmodulin kinase IV is increased in T cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, as well as in lupus-prone mice, podocytes of patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and in mice injected with doxorubicin. We showed that this accounts for aberrant T cell function and glomerular damage. Using nanoparticles (nlg) loaded with a small drug inhibitor of calcium calmodulin ki...
Source: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association - Category: General Medicine Tags: Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The diabetic trained rats demonstrate a protective effect of resistance training on the serum lipid profile. PMID: 31517608 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Our results show that under hyperglycemic condition, expression of genes involved in the miRNA maturation was significantly increased in HUVECs. Upregulation of these genes may have role in diabetic complications through the dysregulation of the miRNA expression. PMID: 31517606 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that changes in lipoprotein profile and subclasses are preceded by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in patients with newly diagnosed MS. PMID: 31517604 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous bleeding probably caused by Exenatide. The exact pathophysiology, by which the drug can cause spontaneous bleeding, is still not clear and has to be revealed. PMID: 31517602 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
Authors: Kutoh E, Hayashi J, Kuto AN Abstract OBJECTIVE: While dulaglutide has been approved inpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in combination with insulin, it has not been studied in insulin-deficient patients, not whether they have type 1 diabetes (T1DM) or T2DM. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide 0.75 mg/once weekly (QW) in patients with absolute insulin deficiency (n=10). SUBJECTS AND RESULTS: Significant reductions of HbA1c (9.30±1.03% to 8.61±1.21%; p
Source: Endocrine Regulations - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Regul Source Type: research
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