Enteropathogen antibody dynamics and force of infection among children in low-resource settings

Little is known about enteropathogen seroepidemiology among children in low-resource settings. We measured serological IgG responses to eight enteropathogens (Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Entamoeba histolytica, Salmonella enterica, enterotoxigenicEscherichia coli,Vibrio cholerae, Campylobacter jejuni, norovirus) in cohorts from Haiti, Kenya, and Tanzania. We studied antibody dynamics and force of infection across pathogens and cohorts. Enteropathogens shared common seroepidemiologic features that enabled between-pathogen comparisons of transmission. Overall, exposure was intense: for most pathogens the window of primary infection was
Source: eLife - Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Current literature show similar risks for bacterial pathogens. Studies are limited for viral and parasitic pathogens. The evaluated risk-factors for PI-IBS varied among the included studies and the existing evidence is insufficient to identify pathogen-specific risk factors. PMID: 31112663 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
This study aims to investigate the occurrences and epidemiology of selected bacterial (Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp.), viral (adenovirus, norovirus GI and GII, and astrovirus), and parasitic (Entamoeba spp. and Giardia spp.) agents in stool samples from 155 child diarrheal cases enrolled between March and August 2017, in a hospital-based cross-sectional study in Thi-Qar, southeastern Iraq. Using molecular techniques and sequence-based characterization, adenovirus was the most frequently detected enteropathogen (53/155 (34.2%)), followed by Salmonella spp. (23/155 (14.8%)), Entamoeba spp. (21/155 (13.5%)), and Camp...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Conclusion: In our experience using the PCR- Biofire assay we show that this approach is feasible and can be used safely to tailor therapy in immunocompromised patients. In all cases, E.Coli was found, most frequently STEC (Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli). Using this approach enable us to identify new pathogens causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, extremely quickly. These preliminary results reveal the need for more clinical experience using the Biofire FilmArray as a diagnostic test for patients with MM and other haematological malignancies, who present acutely with severe diarrhea.DisclosuresTadmor: NOVART...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections Source Type: research
This study represents a 2-year picture of the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in children suffering from gastroenteritis using the FilmArray® Gastrointestinal Panel (FA-GP), a multiplex molecular assay that allows to simultaneously detect a large panel of pathogens independently of the etiological suspicion and to evaluate its potential contribution to the diagnosis compared to the conventional methods. A total of 1716 stool samples, collected from children with clinical suspicion of bacterial and/or viral gastroenteritis attending the University Hospital of Parma, was submitted to the FA-GP and, when an adequate ali...
Source: International Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Int J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Typical recreational water risk to swimmers is assessed using epidemiologically derived correlations by means of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB). It has been documented that concentrations of FIB do not necessarily correlate well with protozoa and viral pathogens, which pose an actual threat of illness and thus sometimes may not adequately assess the overall microbial risks from water resources. Many of the known pathogens have dose-response relationships; however, measuring water quality for all possible pathogens is impossible. In consideration of a typical freshwater receiving secondarily treated efflue...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (GE) has a major impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet comprehensive data regarding infectious agents including enteroviruses are scarce. We hypothesized that enteroviruses constitute a significant cause of acute GE. We analyzed 677 stool samples from 504 patients, which had been submitted for suspected infectious GE. 0.2 ml of stool suspension was extracted using the Abbott m2000 sp robot and analysed by multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) using the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) as well as by specific NATs detecting enteroviruses and polioviruse...
Source: Journal of Medical Virology - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Research Article Source Type: research
Authors: Hawash YA, Ismail KA, Almehmadi M Abstract Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9.8% mixed). Rotavirus (19.6%), Giardia duodenalis (...
Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Korean J Parasitol Source Type: research
Conclusions: In this study, xTAG GPP detected twice as many pathogens as the conventional assays. We recommend the introduction of this assay in routine diagnostic laboratories for a rapid and better diagnosis and treatment of diarrheal disease.Med Princ Pract
Source: Medical Principles and Practice - Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research
Abstract The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, one in six Americans will experience a foodborne illness. The most common causes in the United States are viruses, such as norovirus; bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria; and parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia. Resources are available to educate consumers on food recalls and proper handling, storage, and cooking of foods. Diagnosis and management of a foodborne illness are based on the history and physical examination. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include vomiting, diarr...
Source: American Family Physician - Category: Primary Care Authors: Tags: Am Fam Physician Source Type: research
This study assessed the performance of the FilmArray Gastrointestinal (GI) Panel for the simultaneous detection of 22 different enteric pathogens directly from stool specimens: Campylobacter spp., Clostridium difficile (toxin A/B), Plesiomonas shigelloides, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, enteroaggregative E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Shiga-like toxin-producing E. coli (stx1 and stx2) (including specific detection of E. coli O157), Shigella spp./enteroinvasive E. coli, Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora cayetanensis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Bacteriology Source Type: research
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