Molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1 RA and DPP-4i induce insulin sensitivity

In this study, we review the possible molecular mechanisms by which GLP-1RA and DPP-4i can improve insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity in insulin-dependent peripheral tissues.
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Evidence about the treatment of hospitalized type  2 diabetes patients with incretin‐based therapy has emerged in the past 15 years. Based on this evidence, dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors should be considered for hospitalized patients with type 2 diabetes and an algorithm for this is proposed. In relation to use of glucagon‐like peptide ‐1 and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonist, further research is required to help define their role in the inpatient setting.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
IntroductionInsulin and glucagon are well-known peptide hormones that keep glucose levels within a healthy range in the body. But they are only part of a complex network that controls concentrations of this ubiquitous sugar in blood and tissues. Other molecules regulate glucose by controlling insulin secretion from the pancreas or protecting pancreatic β cells against stresses that lead to cellular dysfunction or cell death (1).One of these protective regulators is glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a 30-amino-acid-long peptide produced in specialized epithelial cells of the intestine, called L cells, and also in the br...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Classics Source Type: research
Accumulating clinical data on incretin ‐based dipeptidyl peptidase‐4 inhibitors and glucagon‐like peptide‐1 receptor agonists in the past decade have clearly confirmed their safety and efficacy as antidiabetes drugs. However, the journey to understand the incretin system and its role in health and disease continues.
Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: JDI Updates Source Type: research
Abstract CONTEXT: It is not known whether GLP-1 and GIP levels correlate within individuals, nor whether levels change with age. Previous studies have all been cross-sectional in design. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal changes in fasting and glucose-stimulated incretin hormone concentrations in healthy older subjects. PATIENTS AND DESIGN: 41 healthy older subjects had measurements of plasma GLP-1 and GIP while fasting and after a 75g oral glucose load on two occasions separated by 5.9 ± 0.1 years (mean age at the initial study was 71.2 ± 3.8 (SD) years). Breath samples were collected to...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
In this study, the predicted compounds were suggested as potent anti-diabetic candidates. Chosen structures were applied following computational strategies: The generation of the three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D QSAR) pharmacophore models, virtual screening, molecular docking, and de novo Evolution. The method also validated by performing re-docking and cross-docking studies of seven protein systems for which crystal structures were available for all bound ligands. The molecular docking experiments of predicted compounds within the binding pocket of DPP-IV were conducted. By using 25 train...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The present study does not provide evidence to support that dietary supplementation with the NAD+ precursor NR serves to impact glucose tolerance, β-cell secretory capacity, α-cell function, and incretin hormone secretion in obese, non-diabetic males. Moreover, bile acid levels in plasma did not change in response to NR supplementation. PMID: 31390002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2019Source: Stem Cell ReportsAuthor(s): Yaxi Zhu, Jason M. Tonne, Qian Liu, Claire A. Schreiber, Zhiguang Zhou, Kuntol Rakshit, Aleksey V. Matveyenko, Andre Terzic, Dennis Wigle, Yogish C. Kudva, Yasuhiro IkedaSummaryGeneration of functional β cells from pluripotent sources would accelerate diagnostic and therapeutic applications for diabetes research and therapy. However, it has been challenging to generate competent β cells with dynamic insulin-secretory capacity to glucose and incretin stimulations. We introduced transcription factors, critical for β-cell develo...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Diabetes Investigation - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Updates Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewHyperglycemia contributes to a significant increase in morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the hospital. Professional associations recommend insulin as the mainstay of diabetes therapy in the inpatient setting. The standard of care basal –bolus insulin regimen is a labor-intensive approach associated with a significant risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia. This review summarizes recent evidence from observational studies and clinical trials suggesting that not all patients require treatment with complex insulin regimens.Recent FindingsEvidence from clinical trials shows that incretin-bas...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 23 July 2019Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular DiseasesAuthor(s): Barchetta I, Ciccarelli G, Barone E, Cimini FA, Ceccarelli V, Bertoccini L, Sentinelli F, Tramutola A, Del Ben M, Angelico F, Baroni MG, Lenzi A, Cavallo MGAbstractBackgroundDipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a key enzyme involved in the regulation of the incretin system exerted by cleaving the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1); the blockage of DPP4, exerted by the antidiabetic agents DPP4-inhibitors (DPP4-I), results in greater GLP-1 concentration and improved glycaemic control. DPP4 acts also as a pro-inflammato...
Source: Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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