IJERPH, Vol. 16, Pages 2972: The Impact of Social Disparities on Microbiological Quality of Drinking Water Supply in Ugu District Municipality of Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa

This study was undertaken to highlight the social disparity between rural and urban areas in terms of housing patterns, provision of safe drinking water, access to sanitation facilities, education, employment rate and health-related to diarrhoeal episodes in Ugu District Municipality of KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. To achieve this aim, a survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Drinking water samples were collected from the point of supply and the storage containers to assess the microbiological quality of drinking water in both rural and urban areas. Results of this study revealed prominent residential segregation between rural and urban communities, whereby the houses in the rural areas were generally constructed with corrugated iron sheets, or mud brick and mortar whereas conventional brick-and-mortar construction was used to build those in the urban areas. All of the urban households had flush toilets in their houses (100%), while 98.2% of the rural households were relying on pit latrines and 1.8% were reported to defecate in an open field. The District unemployment rate was at 58.1% in rural areas and none among the urban community. Results also showed that only 13.6% of the rural dwellers completed their secondary education compared to 70.4% of the urban areas. The diarrhoeal episodes were high in rural areas (34.1%) while none of these episodes was reported in urban areas. Great disparity in the water supply persists between rural and urban com...
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research

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Authors: Fukushima K, Yanagisawa N, Sekiya N, Izumiya H Abstract Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection is a major pathogen causing gastroenteritis among immunocompetent adults. NTS infection is mainly transmitted by contaminated food and water, but some cases are transmitted by animal contact. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Poona (S. Poona) is an NTS usually transmitted by reptiles, and cases including outbreaks of gastroenteritis have been reported previously. However, invasive infections due to this organism among immunocompetent adults are rare. We herein report a case of a 39-year-old man who wa...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Epidemiology of β-Lactamase-Producing Staphylococci and Gram Negative Bacteria as Cause of Clinical Bovine Mastitis in Tunisia. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:2165316 Authors: Klibi A, Jouini A, Boubaker El Andolsi R, Kmiha S, Ben Hamda C, Ghedira K, Hamrouni S, Ghram A, Maaroufi A Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Staphylococcus, Gram negative bacteria (GNB) and the occurrence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci (MRS) and Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing GNB. Bacterial culture of 300 clinical mastitis milk samples from 30 different far...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Protein Expression and PurificationAuthor(s): Yi He, Yong Chen, Daniel L. Morris, Duck-Yeon Lee, Nico TjandraAbstractBax is a pro-apoptosis protein that translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane upon initiation of programed cell death. Bax subsequently disrupts the mitochondria membrane, resulting in the release of cytochrome C which activates the downstream caspases. The structure of inactive Bax has been solved, but despite intensive investigation, the mechanism by which it regulates apoptosis is not established. The low yield of Bax expression...
Source: Protein Expression and Purification - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
In conclusion, turanose can attenuate colitis via regulatory effects on miRNA-21 expression and histone acetylation-related proinflammatory mediators. These findings also support further exploration of turanose as a potential therapeutic sugar substitute for patients with IBD.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn conclusion, it would appear that the most prevalent mcr gene of E. coli from diarrheic weaned piglets in Korea was mcr-3. And, to our best knowledge, this is the first report for coexistence of two plasmid-mediated colistin resistance genes, mcr-1 and mcr-3 in the same isolates (0258, 0491, 0516) from piglets with diarrhea in Korea. Those mcr–positive isolates showed multi-drug resistance, and majority of those encoded Stx2e and F18. This indicates that the risk of inefficient treatment for edema disease in weaned piglets.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusions: Among children with acute gastroenteritis who were younger than 5 years of age, L. reuteri compared with placebo, as an adjunct to rehydration therapy, did not reduce the duration of diarrhea; however, it reduced the duration of hospitalization.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
In this study, cephalexin (CEX), as an effective antibiotic, was loaded into polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) nanofibrous by electrospinning for the development of a new wound dressing. The electrospun nanofibrous possessed continuous and smooth structure with the fiber diameters ranging from 280 to 330 nm. Swelling examination exhibited that the electrospun nanofibrous could take up water by 400–600%. Antibacterial activity of PCL/GelMA loading with CEX had a great inhibition towards both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and negative-bacteria Escherichia coli. The hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and ...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
In this study, we were constructed a photocatalytic and antibacterial material AgCl/Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) by deposition-precipitation method. A series of characterizations indicate that AgCl nanoparticles are deposited on CNTs and then dispersed together on g-C3N4 (CN). The photocatalytic properties of the composites were investigated by photodegrading tetracycline under visible light. The AgCl/CNTs/CN nanocomposites exhibit excellent photocatalytic efficiency of 86.44%, which is three times the photocatalytic degradation efficiency of pure CN and AgCl/CN. In addition, the catalytic acti...
Source: Materials Letters - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Publication date: 19 September 2019Source: Cell, Volume 179, Issue 1Author(s): Sangjin Kim, Bruno Beltran, Irnov Irnov, Christine Jacobs-WagnerSummaryGenes are often transcribed by multiple RNA polymerases (RNAPs) at densities that can vary widely across genes and environmental conditions. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for a built-in mechanism by which co-transcribing RNAPs display either collaborative or antagonistic dynamics over long distances (>2 kb) through transcription-induced DNA supercoiling. In Escherichia coli, when the promoter is active, co-transcribing RNAPs translocate faster th...
Source: Cell - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: Journal of Food EngineeringAuthor(s): Zahra Moaddabdoost Baboli, Leonard Williams, Guibing ChenAbstractJuices are usually thermally pasteurized, but high temperatures negatively affect their nutritional and sensory qualities. For this reason, nonthermal pasteurization techniques with little or no heat applied have been developed to minimize the quality losses. Among them, high-intensity ultrasound has been considered as a promising technique for juice pasteurization. Despite the extensive studies, a long pasteurization time is needed to achieve the required 5-log ...
Source: Journal of Food Engineering - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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