Lessons learned from accident and near-accident experiences in traffic
Publication date: December 2019Source: Safety Science, Volume 120Author(s): Jens Andreas Terum, Frode SvartdalAbstractThe focus of this article is risky behavior in traffic. What do people learn from accidents and near-accidents? Experience with accidents may demand increased caution. However, near-accidents are inherently ambiguous: On the one hand, they signal that margins were good enough, inspiring increased risk-taking; on the other hand, they signal danger that could induce increased caution. To explore these issues, participants (N = 614) answered 47 questions related to safe traffic behavior as well as reported on their experiences with traffic accidents and near-accidents, assessing changes in cautiousness as well as cognitive (i.e., counterfactual thinking) and emotional mechanisms possibly involved in learning from such experience. Results indicate that people do not become more cautious after accidents, whereas repeated experiences with near-accidents seem to foster less cautious traffic behavior. We discuss emotional and cognitive mechanisms related to these effects, and suggest that cautiousness after near-accidents is associated with assuming personal responsibility and upward counterfactual comparisons. We conclude that the mechanisms involved in learning from near-accidents are theoretically interesting, as well as important for the understanding of safe driving behavior.
Org. Biomol. Chem., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9OB01981B, CommunicationMikhail V. Makarov, Nekoda W. Harris, Marcelo Rodrigues Rodrigues, Marie Migaud Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, NAD+, is an essential cofactor and substrate for many cellular enzymes. Its sustained intracellular levels have been linked to improved physiological end points in a range of... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
A new center for advanced imaging at Oregon Health&Science University has received a $5.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, enabling it to expand capabilities in electron microscopy. The Pacific Northwest Cryo-EM Center, a collaboration between OHSU and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, will use the award to purchase another Krios microscope and three additional direct electron detection cameras. The center already has three of the top-of-the-line microscopes, whic h…
Authors: Alqahtani S, Nehme Z, Williams B, Bernard S, Smith K Abstract Aim: To describe temporal trends in the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of hanging-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Method: A retrospective study of all hanging-related OHCA in Victoria, Australia, between 2000 and 2017 was conducted. Trends in incidence, characteristics and outcomes were assessed using linear regression and a non-parametric test for trend, as appropriate. Predictors of survival to hospital discharge were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Between 2000 and 2017, emergency medical s...
Authors: Urbaniak A, Skarpańska-Stejnborn A Abstract The aim of the study was to review recent findings on the use of POM supplements in athletes of various disciplines and physically active participants. Eleven articles published between 2010 and 2018 were included, where the total number of investigated subjects was 176. Male participants constituted the majority of the group (n = 155), as compared to females (n = 21). 45% of research described was conducted on athletes, whereas the remaining studies were based on highly active participants. Randomised, crossover, double-blind study designs ...
Conclusion: Overweight and obese individuals have lower serum folate concentrations when compared with individuals with normal weight. It is explained by increased use of folic acid, urinary excretion, dilution of blood volume, different levels in different tissues and changes in the endocrine functions of folate. Individuals with higher Body Mass Indexes have less supplement use, unhealthier diets and donot consume sufficient vegetables and fruits, all of which can affect decrease in folate levels. Furthermore, adiposity may affect folate absorption by intestinal epithelium. PMID: 31512572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9CP04403E, CommunicationKwanghee Jeong, Peter John Metaxas, Joel Chan, Temiloluwa O. Kuteyi, Zachary M. Aman, Paul Stanwix, Michael Johns, Eric F. May Hydrate formation was studied using water droplets acoustically levitated in high-pressure natural gas. Despite the absence of solid interfaces, the droplets ’ area-normalised nucleation rate was about 4.4 times faster than... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9CP04533C, PaperKiki A Kurnia, Ana M. Fernandes, Sim ão P. Pinho, Joao A. P. Coutinho Recently, combination of two (or more) ionic liquids, known as ionic liquid mixtures, are becoming popular and have broad range of application. However, the fundamental knowledge on the molecular interaction... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
New J. Chem., 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9NJ03329G, PaperMatheus S. Souza, Luan Farinelli Diniz, Natalia Alvarez, Cecilia da Silva, Javier A Ellena Two novel multicomponent crystal forms of the prodrug 5-Fluorocytosine (5-FC), an ionic cocrystal and a monohydrate salt, with 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid, PA) and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNSA), respectively, were rationally designed... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9TA06044H, PaperManaswee Barua, Mohd Monis Ayyub, Pratap Vishnoi, K. Pramoda, Chintamani Nagesa Ramachandra Rao Monometallic and bimetallic layered phosphosulfides and phosphoselenides, prepared by high temperature solid state reactions, have been subjected to exfoliation to obtain few-layer materials. Photochemical HER activity of these materials has... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry
J. Mater. Chem. A, 2019, Accepted Manuscript DOI: 10.1039/C9TA08458D, PaperXiaodong Yang, Haibo Shu, Xinxin Wang, Yang Shen, Naifeng Shen, Baoling Wang, jianguo wan, Guanghou Wang Metal halide perovskites (MHPs) with high-sensitive photoelectric response and ultrahigh absorption coefficient in the visible range exhibit the huge potential as building blocks for optoelectronic devices. However, these perovskites suffer... The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry