Bladder cancer

Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Surgery (Oxford)Author(s): Jameel Mushtaq, Ramesh Thurairaja, Rajesh NairAbstractUrothelial carcinoma of the bladder is the most common malignancy affecting the urinary tract. This review examines the current standards in the diagnosis and management of this disease. Cystoscopy and urine cytology remain important tools in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer. Alternatives include photodynamic diagnosis, narrow band imaging and professional image enhancement which may improve detection of tumours. En-bloc resection using either laser or electrocautery shows promise in improving the quality of transurethral resection. For patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, robot-assisted radical cystectomy has been shown to be oncologically equivalent to open radical cystectomy; however, cost effectiveness remains to be determined. The mainstay of bladder preservation treatment in muscle-invasive cancer is trimodal therapy utilizing transurethral resection and chemoradiotherapy with equivalent outcomes to radical cystectomy in selected patients. Management of locally advanced and metastatic disease has rapidly advanced through the use of systemic immunotherapy agents targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis.
Source: Surgery (Oxford) - Category: Surgery Source Type: research

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Conclusions: While race is accepted as a poor prognostic factor in the mortality from bladder cancer, insurance status can help to explain some of the survival differences across races.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
AbstractWe prospectively validate the efficacy of the frailty discriminant score (FDS) in individuals with urological cancers, as there has been growing importance in evaluating frailty in clinical practice. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted from February 2017 to April 2019. We enrolled 258 patients with urological cancers and 301 community-dwelling participants who were assessed for frailty. Frailty was assessed using FDS that includes ten items, such as physical, mental, and blood biochemical tests. The primary outcome was the non-inferiority (margin 5%) of FDS in discriminating patients with urological canc...
Source: Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionSince technical difficulties with a limited number of hands, some complex surgery like radical hysterectomy has rarely been performed through LESS approach[1]. The dissection of vesicocevical and parametrial space are critical to radical hysterectomy, dissatisfied exposure during the procedure are the majority difficulties[2]. In the video, surgery for cervical cancer was performed successfully and also met the FIGO standards for radical hysterectomy (Type C). Our video demonstrated that the varied and flexible suspension played a significant role to provide a clear vision and sufficiently exposure, it was feasib...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Abstract Downregulation of checkpoint protein kinase 2 (CHEK2), which is involved in DNA repair, is associated with poorer outcome in various tumors. Little is known about the role of CHEK2 in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB). In the present study, we investigated the prognostic impact of CHEK2 protein expression in stage pT1 UCB. This retrospective, single-center analysis was carried out in a cohort of patients initially diagnosed with a pT1 UCB between 2007 and 2015. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of CHEK2 was performed. CHEK2 expression was correlated with recurrence-free survival (RFS), progressio...
Source: Pathology Oncology Research - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Pathol Oncol Res Source Type: research
Inherited Primary Immunodeficiency (PID) disorders are associated with increased risk of malignancy that may relate to impaired antitumor immune responses or a direct role for PID germline mutations in tumorigenesis. We recently identified germline loss of function mutations in Janus Associated Kinase 1 (JAK1) causing primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections and associated with early onset, fatal high-grade bladder carcinoma. Somatic mutations in JAK1, required for immune cell signaling in response to interferon gamma (IFNγ), have been associated with several non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cancer cel...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that PML may play an important role in the pathogenesis of BLCA and may be an indicator of heavy metal exposure in bladder cells. PMID: 31499585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry : RCM - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom Source Type: research
Conclusion: Low expressing levels of miRNA-15a indicated poor OS, while miRNA-15a can be used as a prediction biomarker in different cancer types. PMID: 31061821 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
ConclusionsT1(or pT1) substaging in patients with bladder cancer is of prognostic value as it is associated with oncologic outcomes. Inclusion of this factors into the clinical decision-making process of this heterogeneous tumor may improve outcomes, while avoiding over- and under-treatment for T1(or pT1) bladder cancer.
Source: World Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Taken together, current study suggest ISYNA1 promotes proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in bladder cancer cells, and its expression correlated with BCa patients' clinicopathological features. Thus, ISYNA1 may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for BCa patients. PMID: 31495492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem Biophys Res Commun Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Immunotherapy is a key treatment in kidney and bladder cancer. In the future, the identification of predictive markers should allow us to better select patients responding to immunotherapy. PMID: 31477432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Progres en Urologie - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Prog Urol Source Type: research
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