The Misestimation of Uncertainty in Affective Disorders
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Trends in Cognitive SciencesAuthor(s): Erdem Pulcu, Michael BrowningOur knowledge about the state of the world is often incomplete, making it difficult to select the best course of action. One strategy that can be used to improve our ability to make decisions is to identify the causes of our ignorance (i.e., why an unexpected event might have occurred) and use estimates of the uncertainty induced by these causes to guide our learning. Here, we explain the logic behind this process and describe the evidence that human learners use estimates of uncertainty to sculpt their learning. Finally, we describe recent work suggesting that misestimation of uncertainty is involved in the development of anxiety and depression and describe how these ideas may be advanced.
Conclusion/Importance: This study indicates that future research should take into account substance use patterns in adults engaging in NSI behaviors. PMID: 31519128 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
ConclusionsOur findings suggest a dose-effect mechanism modulating the relationship between treatment-related SI and AS. AS symptoms may need to be monitored closely in the weeks that follow the introduction of an antidepressant treatment.
Conclusion: Gabapentin as an adjunctive drug could be more effective in reducing the severity of GI symptoms in patients with dyspepsia, especially neurological symptoms (such as pain, reflux, and indigestion). PMID: 31516891 [PubMed]
Previously observed antidepressant-like effects of caffeine in adolescent rats have been shown in individually housed (IH) rats. Because IH presents a social stressor that may create depressant-like effects in control animals, this study sought to compare the effects of chronic caffeine in IH and pair-housed (PH) adolescent male and female rats. Housing conditions began on postnatal day 24 (P24) and half of the rats were provided caffeine (0.25 g/l) in their drinking water beginning on P28. Open-field behavior was assessed on P42, a light/dark test was conducted on P43, and a forced swim test was conducted on P44–P45...
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DISCUSSIONWhereas some AD biomarkers showed to be associated with affective symptoms in AD, most evidence was inconsistent. This is likely due to differences in study design or heterogeneity in affective symptoms. Directions for future research are given.
Publication date: October 2019Source: Epilepsy &Behavior, Volume 99Author(s): Zilin Wang, Zhiwen Luo, Shunhua Li, Zhiwen Luo, Zilin WangAbstractObjectiveAnxiety is a common neurological condition often comorbid with epilepsy, with approximately 20% of patients with epilepsy exhibiting symptoms of anxiety. Despite this prevalence, accurate and efficacious tools designed to screen for anxiety specifically in patients with epilepsy have not yet been developed. The purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature and better understand this relationship.MethodsOvid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsyclNFO were searched...
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Computers in Human BehaviorAuthor(s): Michael Lyvers, Delilah Cutinho, Fred Arne ThorbergAbstractThe tendency to disclose personal information on Facebook has been examined in relation to the broad Big Five personality factors (extraversion, openness, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness), but the potential roles of more specific traits such as alexithymia and impulsivity are not known. The present study assessed the ability of these two traits, along with indices of disordered social media use, alcohol use, negative mood, and demographic factors, to pred...
ConclusionsThe PIP intervention seems not to be effective reducing burden, but appears to have a positive result on general mental health. The program was well received and valued by caregivers.
In conclusion, our novel findings further validate the use of zebrafish as a suitable tool for modeling epilepsy-related comorbidities in translational neuropsychiatric research.Graphical abstract