Risk factors for influenza B virus–associated pneumonia in adults

ConclusionsThis study suggests that chronic respiratory diseases and shortness of breath are independent risk factors for influenza B virus–associated pneumonia in adult patients.
Source: American Journal of Infection Control - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Purpose of review Overview of influenza infection, focusing on outcome and complications in critically ill patients. We also discuss relevant elements in immunopathogenesis and their role as predictors of severity. Recent findings Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus circulates seasonally and remains the predominant subtype among intensive care patients. Mortality in acute respiratory failure (ARF) is around 20%, independent of influenza subtypes. During severe infection, the imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory molecules, such as Th1 and Th17 cytokines, is associated with complicated infections and m...
Source: Current Opinion in Critical Care - Category: Nursing Tags: SEVERE INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical presentation, and severity of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD)-causing serotypes and the impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination during epidemic and nonepidemic influenza periods in Catalonia, Spain. This was a prospective study in persons aged
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The clinical features and outcomes of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza and current circulating seasonal influenza A strains were comparable in hospitalised patients. However, since both seasonal and pandemic influenza can lead to significant morbidity and mortality, the impact of pre-existing seasonal influenza should not be underestimated during the pandemic period. PMID: 31304711 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Emergence and re-emergence of respiratory virus infections represent a significant threat to global public health, as they occur seasonally and less frequently (such in the case of influenza virus) as pandemic infections. Some of these viruses have been in the human population for centuries and others had recently emerged as a public health problem. Influenza viruses have been affecting the human population for a long time now; however, their ability to rapidly evolve through antigenic drift and antigenic shift causes the emergence of new strains. A recent example of these events is the avian-origin H7N9 influenza virus ou...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important factor for consideration in pandemic preparedness. Any reduction in treatability poses a potential risk to national and international security and economic stability when applied to pandemic-related pathogens (McArthur and Tsang, 2017). Increasing AMR among pathogens responsible for the development of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) (Adam, 2002) is especially concerning given their propensity to cause bacterial infections secondary to viral influenza.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is an important factor for consideration in pandemic preparedness. Any reduction in treatability poses a potential risk to national and international security and economic stability when applied to pandemic-related pathogens (McArthur and Tsang, 2017). Increasing AMR among pathogens responsible for the development of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (e.g. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) (Adam, 2002) is especially concerning given their propensity to cause bacterial infections secondary to viral influenza.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Poshmaal Dhar1 and Julie McAuley2* 1Faculty of Health, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Peter Doherty Institute, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia The family of cell surface (cs-) mucins are constitutively expressed at the cell surface by nearly all epithelial cells, beneath the gel-mucin layer. All cs-mucin family members have structural features that enable them to act as a releasable decoy barrier to mucosal pathogens, by providing ligands for pathogen binding and the ability to shed the bound extracellular domain. Due ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Human challenge studies and systems biology approaches are important tools that should be used in concert to advance our understanding of influenza infection and provide targets for novel therapeutics and immunizations. Introduction Although influenza virus was recognized as an important pathogen over a century ago, influenza continues to cause a significant burden of disease. In the United States alone, it's estimated that in the 2017–2018 season there were 959,000 hospitalizations related to influenza illness, and 79,400 deaths (CDC, 2018). Worldwide, WHO estimates that annual influenza...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jennifer M. Rudd1, Sivasami Pulavendran1, Harshini K. Ashar1, Jerry W. Ritchey1, Timothy A. Snider1, Jerry R. Malayer1, Montelongo Marie1, Vincent T. K. Chow2 and Teluguakula Narasaraju1* 1Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, United States2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore Exaggerated host innate immune responses have been implicated in severe influenza pneumonia. We have previously demonstrated that excessive neutrophils recruited during in...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic, pro-inflammatory metal ubiquitous in the diet that accumulates in body organs due to inefficient elimination. Responses to influenza virus infection are variable, particularly severity of pneumonia. We used a murine model of chronic low-dose oral exposure to Cd to test if increased lung tissue Cd worsened inflammation in response to sub-lethal H1N1 infection. The results show that Cd-treated mice had increased lung tissue inflammatory cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, T lymphocytes and dendritic cells, following H1N1 infection. Lung genetic responses to infection (increasin...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Int Source Type: research
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