Comparison of coproscopic examination and organ diagnosis in slaughtered lambs for nematodes, especially Haemonchus contortus

Publication date: Available online 17 August 2019Source: Small Ruminant ResearchAuthor(s): B. Lambacher, C.M. Frei, J. Schoiswohl, A. Tichy, J. Elmer, J. Frei, R. Krametter-FrötscherAbstractDue to the growing importance of endoparasitoses in Austrian lambs this study evaluated the prevalence of gastrointestinal strongylids (GIS) in 221 lambs at slaughter, focusing on the prevalence of Haemonchus contortus. The study also assessed associations between clinical signs, adult infestation of the abomasa and faecal excretion of strongylid eggs. From faecal examinations, 65.6% of lambs were positive for strongylids. Larval cultures were obtained from samples with high-grade infestations (N = 65). The most common genera of larvae detected were Haemonchus (78.9%), followed by Chabertia (65.8%), Bunostomum (65.8%), Nematodirus (57.9%), Strongyloides (31.6%), Trichostrongylus spp. (28.9%) and Teladorsagia (28.9%). Cooperia was not detected. H. contortus was present macroscopically in 32 abomasa (N = 221). However, there was no correlation between macroscopic alterations of the abomasa, clinical symptoms and total parasite prevalence. The highest prevalence of H. contortus occurred in the autumn. It remains questionable as to what extent it is possible to conclude from clinical findings alone the degree of worm infestation.
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug ResistanceAuthor(s): Paul McCusker, John D. ChanAbstractSubversion of parasite neuromuscular function is a key strategy for anthelmintic drug development. Schistosome Ca2+ signaling has been an area of particular interest for decades, with a specific focus on L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cavs). However, the study of these channels has been technically challenging. One barrier is the lack of pharmacological probes that are active on flatworms, since the dihydropyridine (DHP) based ligands typically used ...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: Plant ScienceAuthor(s): Yanfeng Hu, Jia You, Chunjie Li, Fengjuan Pan, Congli WangAbstractSoybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a sedentary root endoparasite that causes serious yield losses on soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. H. glycines secrets effector proteins into host cells to facilitate the success of parasitism. Nowadays, a large number of candidate effectors were identified from the genome sequence of H. glycines. However, the precise functions of these effectors in the nematode-host plant interaction are unknown. Here, an effector gene ...
Source: Plant Science - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): R.E.B. Hanna, D. Moffett, M.W. Robinson, W.G.Z.O. Jura, G.P. Brennan, I. Fairweather, L.T. ThreadgoldAbstractCytochemical staining techniques were carried out en bloc with in vitro excysted and gut-penetrated Fasciola gigantica larvae in order to visualise the glycocalyx of the tegument, a structure which comprises the parasite component of the host-parasite interface, yet is incompletely preserved by conventional fixation and preparation techniques for electron microscopy. Positive reactivity with ruthenium red and periodic acid-...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Abstract Although Ethiopia has an overall lower prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum among countries in Africa, the emergence of drug resistance could seriously hinder elimination efforts. Using samples collected from five therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in 2007-11, we evaluated the prevalence of putative drug resistance mutations in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, and kelch13 genes at the time of those studies, as well as the ama1 gene for genetic relatedness using a pooled amplicon deep sequencing approach. Among all sites, the kelch13 gene showed no mutations, whereas the pfcrt CVIET genotype was fixed in all populati...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Strongyloidiasis, caused by Strongyloides stercoralis infection, is an important neglected tropical disease that causes significant public health problems in the tropics and subtropics. The disease can persist in hosts for decades and may be life-threatening because of hyperinfection and dissemination. Ivermectin (mostly) and albendazole are the most common anthelmintics used for treatment. Albendazole is suboptimal for this parasite, and although ivermectin is quite effective in immunocompromised patients, a multiple-course regimen is required. Furthermore, reliance on a single drug class for treating in...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Authors: Senerovic L, Opsenica D, Moric I, Aleksic I, Spasić M, Vasiljevic B Abstract Infective diseases have become health threat of a global proportion due to appearance and spread of microorganisms resistant to majority of therapeutics currently used for their treatment. Therefore, there is a constant need for development of new antimicrobial agents, as well as novel therapeutic strategies. Quinolines and quinolones, isolated from plants, animals, and microorganisms, have demonstrated numerous biological activities such as antimicrobial, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, and antitumor. For more tha...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Arun Venkatesan, Benedict D Michael, John C Probasco, Romergryko G Geocadin, Tom Solomon
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: 14–20 September 2019Source: The Lancet, Volume 394, Issue 10202Author(s): Amir Abdoli
Source: The Lancet - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidi...
Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Parasitology InternationalAuthor(s): Alexa Seal, Catherine Harding, Shokoofeh ShamsiAbstractDespite the increasing popularity of seafood in Australia and various reports of infection with transmissible parasites in Australian edible aquatic animals such as fish, the number of reported cases of human infections in the country is low. This raised the question that Australian medical doctors may not be fully aware of the presence of these parasites in Australia, which in turn can lead to misdiagnosis of infections. This also may lead to an underestimation of the risk...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
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