Immunisation of cattle against Babesia bovis combining a multi-epitope modified vaccinia Ankara virus and a recombinant protein induce strong Th1 cell responses but fails to trigger neutralising antibodies required for protection

In this study, 13-15-months-old Holstein-Friesian steers were immunised with a subunit vaccine as a prime and a modified vaccinia Ankara vector as a boost, both expressing a chimeric multi-antigen (rMABbo – rMVA). This antigen includes the immunodominant B and T cell epitopes of three B. bovis proteins: merozoite surface antigen - 2c (MSA - 2c), rhoptry associated protein 1 (RAP - 1) and heat shock protein 20 (HSP20). Responses were compared with the Babesia bovis live attenuated vaccine used in Argentina (R1A). Eleven weeks after the first immunisation, all bovines were challenged by the inoculation of a virulent B. bovis strain. All groups were monitored daily for hyperthermia and reduction of packed cell volume. Both the rMABbo – rMVA and R1A vaccinated animals developed high titters of total IgG antibodies and an antigen-specific Th1 cellular response before and after challenge. However, all rMABbo – rMVA steers showed clinical signs of disease upon challenge. Only the R1A live vaccine group developed an immune response associated with in vitro neutralising antibodies at a level that significantly inhibited the parasite invasion. The lack of protection observed with this recombinant formulation indicates the need to perform further basic and clinical studies in the bovine model in order to achieve the desired effectiveness. This is the first report in which a novel vaccine candidate against Babesia bovis was constructed based on a recombinant and rationa...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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This study was set to evaluate the presence of EP parasites in domestic donkeys and in wild equids in Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA). To assess subclinical EP infection in 98 domestic donkeys (Equus africanus asinus), 9 Asiatic wild donkeys (Equus hemionus), 8 zebras (Equus quagga), 7 African wild donkeys (Equus africanus) and 5 mules, were tested using PCR and qPCR. Positive samples were characterized by amplification and sequencing of a 1600 bp fragment of the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia caballi was not detected in any of the animals. Theileria equi was detected in 32% of the donkeys, 89% of Asiatic wild donkeys, 5...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Catarina Rosa, Masahito Asada, Hassan Hakimi, Ana Domingos, Madalena Pimentel, Sandra AntunesAbstractBabesia species, etiological agents of babesiosis, a recognized emerging tick-borne disease, are a significant animal and human health concern with a worldwide socio-economic impact. The development of genetic manipulation techniques, such as transfection technology, is pivotal to improve knowledge regarding the biology of these poorly studied parasites towards better disease control strategies. For Babesia ovis, responsible for...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic, Selin Hacilarlioglu, Serkan Bakirci, Onur Kose, Ahmet Hakan Unlu, Ayca Aksulu, Metin Pekagirbas, Jabbar Ahmed, Christina Deschermeier, Gordon Langley, Tulin KaragencAbstractBabesiosis is a disease complex caused by unicellular Babesia parasites and among them, malignant ovine babesiosis caused by B. ovis has a devastating economical impact on the small ruminant industry. The control of disease is mainly based on chemotherapy and preventing animals from tick infestation and to date no vaccine is available ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 24 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Umer Chaudhry, Qasim Ali, Imran Rashid, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Abbas, Mike Evans, Kamran Ashraf, Ivan Morrison, Liam Morrison, Neil D. SargisonAbstractPiroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne haemoprotozoa of the genera Theileria and Babesia. These parasitic infections can seriously impact on the health of livestock and production. Piroplasms of multiple species can be present in a single host, but reliable molecular diagnostic tools are needed in order to understand the composition of these complex paras...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Jiří Černý, Buyantogtokh Buyannemekh, Tersia Needham, Gantulga Gankhuyag, Dashzeveg OyuntsetsegAbstractTicks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) pose a considerable threat to human and animal health in Mongolia; a large and sparsely inhabited country whose economy is largely dependent on animal production. Intensive contact between herdsmen and their livestock, together with the use of pastures without fencing, allows contact between wildlife, domestic animals and humans, thus creating ideal conditions for epizoonos...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
by Evan M. Bloch, Zakayo Mrango, Mabula Kasubi, Jerusha Weaver, Aleksandra Mihailovic, Beatriz Munoz, Anna Weimer, Andrew Levin, Laura Tonnetti, Jeffrey M. Linnen, Vanessa Br ès, Douglas E. Norris, Giovanna Carpi, Sheila K. West BackgroundBabesia, a tick-borne genus of intraerythrocytic parasites, is understudied in humans outside of established high-endemic areas. There is a paucity of data onBabesia in Africa, despite evidence that it is regionally present. A pilot study suggested thatBabesia was present in a rural district of Tanzania. Methodology/Principal findingsA cross-sectional study was conducted July-Augus...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
We report a case of severe babesiosis caused by the bovine pathogen Babesia divergens with the development of multisystem failure in a splenic host. Immunosuppression other than splenectomy can also predispose people to B. divergens. There was heavy multiple invasion of up to 14 parasites inside the erythrocyte, which had not been previously observed even in asplenic hosts. The factors preventing the effectiveness of the vector Ixodes ricinus in the transmission of the organisms to humans are discussed.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
This study demonstrates the effect of only simultaneous infection by B. burgdorferi and B. microti on each pathogen, immune response and on disease manifestations with respect to infection by the spirochete and the parasite. In our future studies, we will examine the overall effects of sequential infection by these pathogens on host immune responses and disease outcomes.
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Babesiosis is a tick-borne infectious disease caused by the protozoa Babesia but transplacental, and transfusion transmission may occur. While most infections are asymptomatic, rarely, it can present with a severe, life-threatening illness. Treatment is primarily with antibiotics, but red cell exchange (RCE) has been used in more severe cases which are characterized by high-grade parasitemia, evidence of severe hemolysis and or multi-organ failure. A threshold parasite level of 10% has arbitrarily been applied as an indication for RCE; however, this threshold is not evidence-based.
Source: Transfusion and Apheresis Science - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
Researchers have discovered how Babesia microti, one of the parasites that transmit the disease babesiosis, communicates with its host to export its antigens.
Source: Yale Science and Health News - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
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