Cognitive Trajectory Phenotypes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients

Conclusions: Each of the 4 cognitive change phenotypes identify deficits that imply perturbations in specific neural networks. Future studies will need to validate if cognitive change phenotypes are associated with alterations in associated neural pathways.
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Alzheimer's &DementiaAuthor(s): Ríona Mc Ardle, Brook Galna, Paul Donaghy, Alan Thomas, Lynn RochesterAbstractObjectiveWe aimed to refine the hypothesis that dementia has a unique signature of gait impairment reflective of underlying pathology by considering two dementia subtypes, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD), and exploring the role of cognition in disease-specific gait impairments.BackgroundAccurately differentiating AD and LBD is important for treatment and disease management. Early evidence suggests gait could be a marker of d...
Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
In this study, we established patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models to investigate the disease pathology induced by the R406W mutation. We generated iPSCs from patients and established isogenic lines using CRISPR/Cas9. The iPSCs were induced into cerebral organoids, which were dissociated into cortical neurons with high purity. In this neuronal culture, the mutant tau protein exhibited reduced phosphorylation levels and was increasingly fragmented by calpain. Furthermore, the mutant tau protein was mislocalized and the axons of the patient-derived neurons displayed morphological and functional abnorma...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
Authors: Wu PH, Lin YT, Wu PY, Huang JC, Chen SC, Chang JM, Chen HC Abstract Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have an increased risk of both impaired cognitive function and peripheral artery disease (PAD) than the general population. The association between PAD and dementia is recognized, but there are limited studies in patients with ESRD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and cognitive impairment in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). We enrolled 136 prevalent HD patients (mean age 59.3 ± 10...
Source: Disease Markers - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Dis Markers Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Current state of knowledge makes the usage of cholesterol markers of cognitive decline in clinical practice impossible. PMID: 31530269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Aging Science - Category: Geriatrics Tags: Curr Aging Sci Source Type: research
Fall prevention requires a multifaceted approach that should include individual risk assessment and intervention strategies. Exercise interventions may mitigate most risk factors for falls (eg, balance impairment, gait impairment, and muscle weakness). Numerous systematic reviews or meta-analyses have assessed the effectiveness of exercise interventions among people with various types of neurological disorders; however, the evidence obtained has not been synthesized into an overview. Therefore, the present systematic review assessed systematic reviews of exercise intervention for fall prevention among people with neurologi...
Source: American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Rehabilitation Tags: Literature Review Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Leonardo PignataroAbstractAlthough alcohol abuse and dependence have profound negative health consequences, emerging evidence suggests that exposure to low/moderate concentrations of ethanol protects multiple organs and systems. In the CNS, moderate drinking decreases the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. This neuroprotection correlates with an increased expression of the heat shock proteins (HSPs). Multiple epidemiological studies revealed an inverse association between ethanol intoxication and traumatic brain injury m...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: NeuronAuthor(s): Peter Dongmin Sohn, Cindy Tzu-Ling Huang, Rui Yan, Li Fan, Tara E. Tracy, Carolina M. Camargo, Kelly M. Montgomery, Taylor Arhar, Sue-Ann Mok, Rebecca Freilich, Justin Baik, Manni He, Shiaoching Gong, Erik D. Roberson, Celeste M. Karch, Jason E. Gestwicki, Ke Xu, Kenneth S. Kosik, Li GanSummaryDysregulation of neuronal excitability underlies the pathogenesis of tauopathies, including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with tau inclusions. A majority of FTD-causing tau mutations are located in the microtubule-binding domain, but how these mutations alte...
Source: Neuron - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
The research by Newcastle University shows that people with Lewy body dementia change their walking steps more - varying step time and length.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Professor Alistair Burns' comments come as the opening ceremony and first match of the 2019 Rugby World Cup kicks off, with nations across the globe competing to win the Webb Ellis Cup.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Yerrapragada DB, Rao CR, Karunakaran K, Lee HSE Abstract Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that affects various body systems. Elevated blood glucose levels cause brain malfunction, sorbitol-induced blood vessel damage, and degeneration of the nerves that can lead to dementia or cognitive impairment. Cognitive impairment can result in nonadherence of patients to diabetes treatment, such as diet, medication, and exercise. Methods: We used a cross-sectional design to individually interview 194 patients with type 2 diabetes in a rural field pract...
Source: Ochsner Journal - Category: General Medicine Tags: Ochsner J Source Type: research
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