The management of invasive fungal disease prior to haematopoietic stem-cell transplant and its effects on post-allogeneic fungal infections

The management of invasive fungal disease prior to haematopoietic stem-cell transplant and its effects on post-allogeneic fungal infectionsConference abstracts
Source: The Aspergillus Website - updates - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: news

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Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children with cancer. An overview of studies on the frequency and determinants of IFI in pediatric oncology patients in nonallogeneic stem cell transplantation settings is lacking. We performed a literature review in Pubmed and Embase, and included 13 prospective and 23 retrospective studies. The IFI frequency (proven/probable based on EORTC criteria) in nonallogeneic stem cell transplantation pediatric cancer patients ranged between 1.0% and 38.0%, with the highest frequencies reported in hematologic malignancies. The most common fungal...
Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology - Category: Hematology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Authors: Lilienfeld-Toal MV, Wagener J, Einsele H, Cornely OA, Kurzai O Abstract BACKGROUND: The incidence of invasive fungal infection is approximately 6 cases per 100 000 persons per year. It is estimated that only half of such infections are detected during the patient's lifetime, making this one of the more common overlooked causes of death in intensive-care patients. The low detection rate is due in part to the complexity of the diagnostic work-up, in which the clinical, radiological, and microbiological findings must be considered. Fungi with resistance to antimycotic drugs have been found to be on the rise a...
Source: Deutsches Arzteblatt International - Category: General Medicine Tags: Dtsch Arztebl Int Source Type: research
Conclusion: This prospective multicenter study provides information on the current incidence and outcome of IFD in the real life setting. Practice variation between the centers may help to ultimately improve antifungal management in children at highest risk for IFDs. Introduction Available data on the incidence and outcome of invasive fungal diseases (IFD) in children treated for a hematological malignancy or undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are mostly based on single site, retrospective studies or on studies performed prior to the availability of newer compounds such as broad-sp...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion In conclusion, F. keratoplasticum and F. petroliphilum were the most frequent species in this study. Amphotericin B showed lower MICs against Fusarium species whereas the antifungal azoles and the fungicide difenoconazole exhibited higher MICs against FSSC. Ethics Statement Samples were collected during routine patient care and the study was retrospective, therefore it was determined by the local Institutional Review Board of the Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná and CAPES that ethical clearance was not indicated. Author Contributions PH, AA-H, FQ-T, and JM designed the study....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We report that the bifunctional compounds enhance the interactions between primary human neutrophils and A. fumigatus in vitro, using three microfluidic assay platforms. The bifunctional compounds significantly enhance the recruitment of neutrophils, increase hyphae killing by neutrophils in a uniform concentration of drug, and decrease hyphal tip growth velocity in the presence of neutrophils compared to the antifungal targeting moiety alone. We validated that the bifunctional compounds are also effective in vivo, using a zebrafish infection model with neutrophils expressing the appropriate EM receptor. We measured signif...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Kunitomi A, Hasegawa Y, Hashimoto H, Saito AM, Iida H Abstract Invasive fungal infections, especially those caused by Aspergillus, can be fatal in patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Fluconazole, itraconazole and micafungin can be used to prevent fungal infections in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but fluconazole is not effective against Aspergillus, and itraconazole has less tolerability from gastrointestinal toxicity. Micafungin is approved for prophylaxis at a dose of 50 mg/day, less than a therapeutic dose. Voriconazol...
Source: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Nagoya J Med Sci Source Type: research
Conclusions. ISV is widely used in hematological pts with IFI also in diseases other than acute myeloid leukemia and it is overall well tolerated. ORR to ISV is at least comparable with other antifungal agents. A rec/ref underlying hematological disease impacts both on OS and response to ISV, while having an IFI refractory to other antifungal agents including azoles does not seem to compromise the response to ISV, although this promising result should be confirmed in prospective studies and larger groups of patients.DisclosuresBusca: Gilead: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Sp...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 203. Lymphocytes, Lymphocyte Activation, and Immunodeficiency, including HIV and Other Infections: Poster III Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Polyene prophylaxis offers effective antifungal activity with improved tolerability compared to older agents. The potential impact of this treatment should be included in current prophylaxis guidelines of antileukemic treatment.DisclosuresNo relevant conflicts of interest to declare.
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 612. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Clinical Studies: Poster III Source Type: research
ConclusionIFI occurred in 9.6% of patients treated with HMA, but was observed in 20.4% of those who were neutropenic on C1D1 of HMA. Another potential risk factor identified was t-MDS versus de novo MDS. Prospective evaluation of mold-active antifungal prophylaxis in patients with MDS or AML who are neutropenic at the start of HMA therapy is warranted.DisclosuresFrey: Novartis: Consultancy; Servier Consultancy: Consultancy. Perl: Arog: Consultancy; NewLink Genetics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Astellas: Con...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 637. Myelodysplastic Syndromes-Clinical Studies Source Type: research
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