Strategies of Targeting Pathological Stroma for Enhanced Antitumor Therapies
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2019Source: Pharmacological ResearchAuthor(s): Yun Zhu, Fangying Yu, Yanan Tan, Hong Yuan, Fuqiang HuAbstractCancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and the derived stromal components constitute specific pathological stroma in desmoplastic tumors, which not only hinder the distribution of drugs/nano-agents in tumors but also reduce the sensibility of tumor cells to standard therapeutics. Consequently, pathological stroma has gradually been termed potential target for antitumor therapy. However, opposite outcomes have been observed to occur with the same strategy in different tumor models and no general principles have been adopted due to the heterogeneity and adaptivity of dynamic stroma, in which case diversified strategies for antitumor therapies are urgent. In this review, we summarize the origins and characterizations of pathological stroma and describe their critical influence on tumor’s responsiveness to oncotherapy. The design of combinational antitumor strategies and stroma targeting drug delivery systems (DDSs) are also discussed in detail. Collectively, the main purpose of this review is to improve our understanding of the roles of stroma in tumor progression and provide new insights for targeting pathological stroma.Graphical abstract
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Authors: Hammerschlag MR, Sharma R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Azithromycin was recommended as the first-line therapeutic regimen for treatment of genital infections in men and women by the Centers for Disease Control in 1998. A series of studies of azithromycin for treatment of rectal chlamydial infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) found that azithromycin was significantly less effective than doxycycline. AREAS COVERED: Literature on treatment of rectal C. trachomatis from 2000 through May 2020 was searched using PubMed. Retrospective and observational studies were identified documenting the frequency and t...
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
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