Genetics of Common Pediatric Brain Tumors

Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumor in pediatrics and represent the largest cause of childhood cancer-related mortality. Improvements have occurred in the management of these patients leading to better survival, but significant morbidity persists.With the era of next generation sequencing, considerable advances have occurred in the understanding of these tumors both biologically and clinically. This information has impacted diagnosis as well as management. Subgroups have been identified, improving risk stratification.
Source: Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

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This article emphasizes relevant clinical, molecular, and imaging features that are unique to pediatric brain tumors.
Source: Radiologic Clinics of North America - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: Maternal folic acid supplementation was found to have a protective effect against childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Thus, healthcare professionals are recommended to provide regular health education and health promotion to the community on the benefits of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. PMID: 31396374 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: J Prev Med Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings support the hypothesis of a familial susceptibility of CBT, not due to being a known NF carrier.
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
(St. Jude Children's Research Hospital) Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, alongside others, have revealed the cells of origin for specific subtypes of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. The work also has implications for how medulloblastoma is classified, which may eventually shape clinical care. The work appears as an advance online publication today in Nature.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Authors: Khalek ER, Afungchwi GM, Beltagy ME, Mariam N, Zaki H, Israels T, Molyneux E, Howard SC, Patte C, Schoeman J, Ladas E, Zaghloul MS, ElDeen YS, Ahmed S, Kamal S, Bouffet E, Pritchard-Jones K, Hessissen L Abstract The 13th African continental meeting of the international society of paediatric oncology, held on 6-9 March 2019 in Cairo, was organised in collaboration with the Children Cancer Hospital (57357) in Egypt and the global parents' organisation (Childhood Cancer International) and supported by a large international faculty. With 629 delegates from 37 countries (24 African), this was the largest forum ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research
Title: Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors Face More StrugglesCategory: Health NewsCreated: 6/25/2019 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 6/26/2019 12:00:00 AM
Source: MedicineNet Cancer General - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
(Wiley) Survivors of childhood brain tumors who received radiotherapy and were very young at the time of diagnosis may experience cognitive and socioeconomic burdens decades after treatment, according to a study published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society. Interventions such as cognitive therapies and educational and occupational services may be needed to mitigate such long-term effects.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
We report the pedigree of a consanguineous family with four affected children. Although clinical and molecular tests confirm CMMRD, genetic testing revealed heterogeneous mutations. The index case developed severe toxicity from therapy for glioblastoma and T-cell leukemia and died from an infection while in complete remission. His sister developed a malignant brain tumor while undergoing surveillance for a low grade brain lesion and is still undergoing follow-up. This family illustrates the difficulties and opportunities with challenging diagnosis, surveillance and choice of therapy for children with CMMRD and the need for...
Source: European Journal of Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Genet Source Type: research
Abstract Pediatric brain tumors are the leading cause of childhood cancer-related death. Immunotherapy is a powerful new approach for treating some refractory cancers; applying this 'fourth pillar' of cancer treatment to pediatric brain tumors is an exciting but challenging prospect. This review offers new perspectives on moving towards successful immunotherapy for pediatric brain tumors, focusing on pediatric high-grade glioma (HGG), a subgroup with universally poor outcomes. We cover chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy, vaccine therapy, and checkpoint inhibition in this context, and focus on the nee...
Source: Trends in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Trends Immunol Source Type: research
pozza Ruggiero The central nervous system (CNS) may be considered as a sanctuary site, protected from systemic chemotherapy by the meninges, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Consequently, parenchymal and CSF exposure of most antineoplastic agents following intravenous (IV) administration is lower than systemic exposure. In this review, we describe the different strategies developed to improve delivery of antineoplastic agents into the brain in primary and metastatic CNS tumors. We observed that several methods, such as BBB disruption (BBBD), intra-arterial (IA) and intracavitary chemo...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
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