Study predicts modest impact from additional dose of rotavirus vaccine

YSPH researchers have shed insight on the vaccine ’s effectiveness in low-income countries concerned about protecting against the highly contagious disease.
Source: Yale Science and Health News - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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Rotavirus vaccination has substantially reduced the incidence of rotavirus-associated gastroenteritis (RVGE) in high-income countries, but vaccine impact and estimated effectiveness are lower in low-income countries for reasons that are poorly understood. We used mathematical modeling to quantify rotavirus vaccine impact and investigate reduced vaccine effectiveness, particularly during the second year of life, in Malawi, where vaccination was introduced in October 2012 with doses at 6 and 10 weeks. We fitted models to 12 years of prevaccination data and validated the models against postvaccination data to evaluate the mag...
Source: Science Translational Medicine - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research
We previously generated 32 rotavirus-specific (RV-specific) recombinant monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells isolated from human intestinal resections. Twenty-four of these mAbs were specific for the VP8* fragment of RV VP4, and most (20 of 24) were non-neutralizing when tested in the conventional MA104 cell–based assay. We reexamined the ability of these mAbs to neutralize RVs in human intestinal epithelial cells including ileal enteroids and HT-29 cells. Most (18 of 20) of the “non-neutralizing” VP8* mAbs efficiently neutralized human RV in HT-29 cells or enteroids. Serum RV neutralization ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine has shortened the rotavirus season from 26 to 9 weeks and has drastically reduced the number of children testing positive for infections, according to a CDC report.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusions: The recent implementation of rotavirus vaccination has not had any substantial influence on the prevalence of BA in the United States.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ONLINE ARTICLES: Original Articles Source Type: research
Abstract Diarrhea remains one of the top five causes of disease and death among young children in developing nations. Fortunately, scientists are making progress developing vaccines against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and Shigella, two of the leading diarrhea pathogens. As vaccine developers start to consider field efficacy trials of these vaccines, they should be aware of the importance of evaluating not only vaccine direct effects on the immunized, but also the herd effects that vaccination can afford to the unimmunized in a community. In a workshop held at the conference titled "Vaccines against Shigell...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
K. C. Jere et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
by Joseph A. Lewnard, Benjamin A. Lopman, Umesh D. Parashar, Aisleen Bennett, Naor Bar-Zeev, Nigel A. Cunliffe, Prasanna Samuel, M. Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo Ruiz-Palacios, Gagandeep Kang, Virginia E. Pitzer Cohort studies, randomized trials, and post-licensure studies have reported reduced natural and vaccine-derived protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in low- and middle-income countries. While susceptibility of children to rotavirus is known to vary within and between settings, impli cations for estimation of immune protection are not well understood. We sought to re-estimate naturally-acquired protect...
Source: PLoS Computational Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Source: Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
In Reply We thank Rosenbauer et al and Vajravelu et al for their comments on our Research Letter. Rosenbauer et al requested more details of the statistical methods. We used an interrupted time-series analysis (ITS) on the incidence of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) in children aged 8 years before and after the May 2007 introduction of routine infant oral rotavirus (RV) vaccination. Counts of new T1D cases by age were modeled as Poisson random variables. Publicly available population data for each age group and sex combination in each year were included as an offset in the model, and inference was on the relative ch...
Source: JAMA Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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