Metabolic and functional heterogeneity in pancreatic β cells

Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Journal of Molecular BiologyAuthor(s): Gabriela Da Silva Xavier, Guy A. RutterAbstractMetabolic and secretory heterogeneity are fundamental properties of pancreatic islet β cells. Emerging data suggest that stable differences in the transcriptome and proteome of individual cells may create cellular hierarchies which, in turn, establish coordinated functional networks. These networks appear to govern the secretory activity of the whole islet and be affected in some forms of diabetes mellitus. Functional imaging, e.g. of intracellular calcium dynamics, has led to the demonstration of “small worlds” behaviour, and the identification of highly connected “hub” (or “leader”) cells, and of follower populations subservient to them. Subsequent inactivation of members of either population, for example using optogenetic approaches or photoablation, has confirmed the importance of hub cells as possible pacemakers. Hub cells appear to be enriched for the glucose phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase, and for genes encoding other enzymes involved in glucose metabolism, compared to follower cells. Recent findings have shown the relevance of cellular hierarchy in islets from multiple species including human, mouse and fish, and shown that it is preserved in vivo in the context of the fully vascularised and innervated islet. Importantly, connectivity is impaired by insults which mimic the diabetic m...
Source: Journal of Molecular Biology - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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In a society where physical activity is limited and food supply is abundant, metabolic diseases are becoming a serious epidemic. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of metabolically related symptoms such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carbohydrate intolerance, and significantly increases type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are consistent characteristics of MetS, but which of these features is the initiating insult is still widely debated. Regardless, both of these conditions trigger adverse responses from the pancreatic β cell, which is responsible for produci...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
This study aimed to explore the association between thyroid dysfunction and OSA in the adults with prediabetes or diabetes mellitus type 2, who have very high prevalence of OSA.MethodsOSA was assessed using an in-home monitoring device, WatchPAT200. OSA severity was measured using apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), oxygen desaturation index (ODI), minimum oxygen saturation (minO2), and time spent under oxygen saturation
Source: Sleep and Breathing - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsPatients with DM are prone to the early development of CAD, and psychological factors were associated with early development of CAD. Therefore, the findings of the current study can be utilized in designing preventive and therapeutic interventions, and implementing and integrating these factors in health-promotion programs for patients with DM can be useful.
Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health - Category: Epidemiology Source Type: research
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) are increasingly being used in oncology, and many autoimmune side effects have been described. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been reported in approximately 1% of subjects treated with programmed cell death-1 and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) inhibitors, alone or in association with CTLA-4 inhibitors. In the present mini-review, we aimed to describe different clinical pictures and pathophysiology associated with these forms of diabetes. Data on CPI-related DM was gathered from the largest case series in the literature and from our centre dedicated to immunotherapy complicatio...
Source: Acta Diabetologica - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractBackgroundSleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become the most popular bariatric procedure. Although bariatric surgery is recommended for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asian patients with BMI 27.5 –32.4 kg/m2, reported evidences, especially following SG, are still lacking.MethodsPatients ’ data from June 2016 to June 2018 that underwent SG as primary surgery at our setting were analyzed. Patients with T2DM, without insulin use and BMI 27.5–30 kg/m2, were our main criteria. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were as such: age, BMI, T2DM duration, anti-diabetic medications, fasting plas...
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our data shows these changes in gene expression caused by endocrine and immune mechanisms of type-2 DM which result disrupted homeostasis of epithelial cells of MG. Increased expressions of apoptosis and inflammation related genes and their effects on related pathways have proven that meibomian glands were negatively affected from type-2 DM. PMID: 31424965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Eye Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Curr Eye Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2019Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental HepatologyAuthor(s): Raseen Tariq, Page Axley, Ashwani K. SingalNonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is now the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide with a strong association with metabolic syndrome. NAFLD is truly a systemic disease and is associated with a plethora of extra-hepatic manifestations or comorbidities. These are either related to secondary effects of associated obesity or from pathophysiological effects of insulin resistance in NAFLD. Three most common causes of increased morbidity and mortality associa...
Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: ATV inhibited ROS generation and activated IL-1 β/IL-6 secretion in PBMNC of diabetes patients. Its effect was not affected by the hyperglymemia. PMID: 31416412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
Authors: Phan K, Smith SD Abstract Background: Topical steroids have been previously associated with potential for hyperglycemia and glucosuria, and thought to have a relatively safe side effect profile. In prolonged use, there is the potential for steroids to be absorbed through the skin and eventually reach systemic circulation. We aimed to investigate the potential association between topical corticosteroid use and development of diabetes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available case-control data in the literature. Methods: Electronic database searches was performed to identify studies co...
Source: Journal of Dermatological Treatment - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Dermatolog Treat Source Type: research
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