ADHD Drug Changes Kids' Brains, Maybe for the Better ADHD Drug Changes Kids' Brains, Maybe for the Better

A new study suggests that methylphenidate changes the brains of kids with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Could this be a good thing?Medscape
Source: Medscape Pediatrics Headlines - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Radiology Commentary Source Type: news

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In this study, we evaluated dose-dependent effects of d-amphetamine and atomoxetine on probabilistic discounting of Lewis and F344. Male Lewis and F344 chose between one food pellet delivered 100% of the time and three food pellets delivered following decreasing probabilities of delivery (i.e. 100%, 66.7%, 33.3%, 16.5%, and 8.25%). Saline, d-amphetamine (0.1–1.8 mg/kg), and atomoxetine (0.1–7.8 mg/kg) were tested acutely. Lewis and F344 did not differ in choice at baseline. d-Amphetamine increased risky choice for both rat strains at low-to-moderate doses, although it did so at a lower dose (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) ...
Source: Behavioural Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Research Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe results suggest that neuropsychological underperformance associated with OCD and ADHD may be related to the presence of comorbid disorders, such as depression, rather than disorder-specific phenomena, highlighting the importance of excluding participants with comorbid disorders in neuropsychological studies and targeting comorbidities in clinical contexts.
Source: Journal of Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion: The results suggest that by optimization of variables such as solution concentration of MDF-ERS nanofibers and nanobeads with higher dissolution rates can be made by electrospray. Electrospray deposition as a simple, continuous, and surfactant free method is an excellent choice for preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles. PMID: 31508333 [PubMed]
Source: BioImpacts - Category: Research Tags: Bioimpacts Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to acetaminophen was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in offspring, regardless of gestational infections and maternal mental health disorders. Additional studies are necessary to clarify the underlying mechanisms by which prenatal exposure to acetaminophen leads to neurodevelopmental risks. PMID: 31509360 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: J Clin Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study used data from the Millennium Cohort Study to investigate the relationship between NOSI and emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and hyperactivity/inattention as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 1,280 youths, aged 14 years. Furthermore, the relationship between NOSI and decision-making processes as assessed by the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT) was investigated. Hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems were significantly associated with NOSI; emotional problems were not. Risk taking was significantly associated with misbehaving in lessons but not with being rude or noisy in...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Abstract The associations between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms were assessed among Iranian hospitalized children (50 ADHD cases and 50 healthy (non-ADHD) controls) during 2014-2015. Levels of ADHD severity and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) were determined by the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) test and an ELISA kit, respectively. The serum 25OHD concentrations of 30 ng/mL were respectively considered as deficient (severe deficiency), insufficient (mild deficiency), and sufficient levels of vitamin D. The association of nutrient bio...
Source: Child Neuropsychology - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Child Neuropsychol Source Type: research
AbstractThe lack of cerebral creatine (Cr) causes intellectual disability and epilepsy. In addition, a significant portion of individuals with Cr transporter (Crt) deficiency (CTD), the leading cause of cerebral Cr deficiency syndromes (CCDS), are diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. While the neurological effects of CTD are clear, the mechanisms that underlie these deficits are unknown. Part of this is due to the heterogenous nature of the brain and the unique metabolic demands of specific neuronal systems. Of particular interest related to Cr physiology are dopaminergic neurons, as many CCDS patients ...
Source: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Neuropsychopharmacology, Published online: 12 September 2019; doi:10.1038/s41386-019-0522-5The effect of methylphenidate on social cognition and oxytocin in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
Source: Neuropsychopharmacology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
This study investigated potential sex differences with age in social adaptive function across these disorders, relative to controls.Method: One hundred fifteen youth with ASD, 172 youth with ADHD, and 63 typically developing controls (age range 7–13 years, 75% males) were recruited from the Province of Ontario Neurodevelopmental Disorder (POND) Network. Social adaptive function was assessed using the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-Second Edition (ABAS-II). The proportions of adaptive behaviors present in each skill area were analyzed as a binomial outcome using logistic regression, controlling for age, and testi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Introduction: After a traumatic event, children and adolescents may present several clinical consequences, the most common being Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Most children and adolescents with PTSD have comorbid disorders, such Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, depression, attachment and anxiety disorders, sleep disturbances and behavior problems. However, epidemiological studies on the development of PTSD and other psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents as a consequence of a terrorist attack and mass murder are lacking. Long-term follow-up of exposed children and adolescents will help identify...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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