Oxytetracycline reduces inflammation and treponeme burden whereas vitamin D 3 promotes β-defensin expression in bovine infectious digital dermatitis

AbstractDigital dermatitis (DD), a common ulcerative disease of the bovine foot causing lameness and reducing productivity and animal welfare, is associated with infection by spirocheteTreponema bacteria. Topical tetracycline, the most common treatment, has inconsistent cure rates; therefore, new therapeutic options are needed. We compared effects of topical oxytetracycline and vitamin D3 on innate immunity in DD-affected skin. Cows with active DD lesions were treated topically with oxytetracycline or vitamin D3 and skin biopsies were collected from lesions. Tissue samples were examined histologically, transcriptional expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and host defense peptides assessed, and the presence of specific treponeme species determined. Effects of treatments at a mechanistic level were studied in a human keratinocyte model of treponeme infection. Oxytetracycline promoted hyperplastic scab formation in ulcerated DD lesions and decreased transcriptional expression of Cxcl-8 (neutrophil chemoattractant). Oxytetracycline also reduced numbers ofTreponema phagedenis andT. pedis and enhanced Tlr2 mRNA expression. Vitamin D3 did not modify expression of cytokines or Tlrs, or bacterial loads, but enhanced transcription of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (Tap), a key bovine β-defensin. Combing oxytetracycline and vitamin D3 provides complementary clinical benefits in controlling DD through a combination of antimicrobial, immunomodulatory,...
Source: Cell and Tissue Research - Category: Cytology Source Type: research

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Applying strips of tape to collect skin samples for biomarker testing may be a viable alternative to biopsy for serial evaluation of early-onset atopic dermatitis in children.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Dermatology Headlines - Category: Dermatology Tags: Dermatology News Source Type: news
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is predominantly a disease of infancy and childhood, yet there are few studies investigating the immune profile of the skin in this population. Thus, relevant AD biomarkers are largely lacking, especially for stratification of the disease ’s severity, progression, and response to therapy. This gap is especially relevant as new medications for AD become available for the pediatric group, necessitating decision-making about which children will benefit. Some of the limitations for such data collection are related to the difficulty wit h obtaining samples in a research setting from infants and chil...
Source: JAMA Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
ConclusionPDE4 is overexpressed in AD skin compared with normal skin, and inflammatory gene expression by human keratinocytes and mouse dermatitis can be modulated by apremilast.
Source: Drugs in R&D - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion: This was the first molecular study of dog leishmaniasis from Saudi Arabia of dogs confirmed to have cutaneous leishmaniasis. Further epidemiological and molecular investigations of domestic and wild canine infections with L. major, L. tropica and L. infantum in endemic and nonendemic areas of Saudi Arabia are required, for leishmaniasis control. PMID: 31543911 [PubMed]
Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Tags: Iran J Parasitol Source Type: research
We report the case of a 48-year old woman with long-standing lepromatous leprosy of 15 years of evolution, with a bacterial index of 4 in the direct smear and the initial skin biopsy. The patient was treated with multidrug therapy for 32 months although the treatment recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) is only for 12 months. A skin biopsy was taken to determine if there was an active disease. We observed a diffuse dermal inflammation with numerous foreign body giant cells and vacuolated macrophages (Virchow´s cells). These cells contained granular acid-fast material that was also positive with immunohi...
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
This article summarizes the most important treatment modalities based on case reports and series, clinical studies, guidelines and expert recommendations. PMID: 31515578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Hautarzt: Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete - Category: Dermatology Tags: Hautarzt Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Because of the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations and the extreme diversity of disease, LCH remains a diagnostic dilemma. Morphological identification of LCH cells and positive immunochemical staining with CD1a, S100, and/or CD207 (Langerin) of lesional cells are necessary for a definitive diagnosis. PMID: 31456157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: World J Pediatr Source Type: research
Conclusions: The findings presented here support the idea that the lymphocyte migratory mechanism observed in neoplasms is similar to that of inflammatory processes of the skin.
Source: The American Journal of Dermatopathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Original Study Source Type: research
Clinical Pathologic Mismatch in a TNF-α Inhibitor-Associated Drug Reaction J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Aug 01;18(8):828-830 Authors: O’Brien KF, Maiman RE, DeWitt CA Abstract A 56-year-old Caucasian male with a history of chronic plaque psoriasis, primary sclerosing cholangitis status-post liver transplant on tacrolimus, and ulcerative colitis on infliximab developed a progressive erythematous eruption with associated fatigue, anorexia, myalgias, and arthralgias. On two separate occasions, his skin biopsy demonstrated a lichenoid interface dermatitis (LID). Despite multiple courses of oral predn...
Source: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology - Category: Dermatology Tags: J Drugs Dermatol Source Type: research
Psoriasis and atopic dermatitis are two inflammatory skin diseases with a high prevalence and a significant burden on the patients. Underlying molecular mechanisms include chronic inflammation and abnormal pro...
Source: BMC Medical Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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