Selective effects of acute low-grade inflammation on human visual attention

Publication date: Available online 12 August 2019Source: NeuroImageAuthor(s): Leonie JT. Balter, Jos A. Bosch, Sarah Aldred, Mark T. Drayson, Jet JCS. Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Suzanne Higgs, Jane E. Raymond, Ali MazaheriAbstractIllness is often accompanied by perceived cognitive sluggishness, a symptom that may stem from immune system activation. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess how inflammation affected three different distinct attentional processes: alerting, orienting and executive control. In a double-blinded placebo-controlled within-subjects design (20 healthy males, mean age = 24.5, SD = 3.4), Salmonella typhoid vaccination (0.025 mg; Typhim Vi, Sanofi Pasteur) was used to induce transient mild inflammation, while a saline injection served as a placebo-control. Participants completed the Attention Network Test with concurrent EEG recorded 6 h post-injection. Analyses focused on behavioral task performance and on modulation of oscillatory EEG activity in the alpha band (9–12 Hz) for alerting as well as orienting attention and frontal theta band (4–8 Hz) for executive control. Vaccination induced mild systemic inflammation, as assessed by interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. While no behavioral task performance differences between the inflammation and placebo condition were evident, inflammation caused significant alterations to task-related brain activity. Specifically, inflammation produced greater cue-induced suppression...
Source: NeuroImage - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Diana Pradhan, Vidya Devi NegiAbstractMicroorganisms are able to adapt to multiple adverse environmental conditions that facilitate their survival. These microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoans are exposed to different abiotic and biotic challenges throughout their life. Adaptations help these organisms to overcome the challenges and evolve as successful pathogens which at the same time might lead to severe disease outcome. The intracellular gram-negative pathogen Salmonella, the causative agent of t...
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Enteric fever is a major public health concern in endemic areas, particularly in infrastructure-limited countries where Salmonella Paratyphi A has emerged in increasing proportion of cases. We aimed to evaluate a method to detect Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi) in febrile patients in Bangladesh. We conducted a prospective study enrolling patients with fever> 38°C admitted to two large urban hospitals and two outpatient clinics located in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We developed and evaluated a method combining short culture with a new molecular assay to simultaneously d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
In this study, we found that the PPL length of Korean SG isolates varied from 11 to 21 prolines and was longer than that of a live vaccine strain, SG 9R (9 prolines). According to growth competition in chickens, the growth of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 17 prolines exceeded that of an SG isolate with a PPL length of 15 prolines. We investigated the pseudogenes of the field isolates, SG 9R and reference strains in GenBank by resequencing and comparative genomics. The pseudogene profiles of the field isolates were notably different from those of the foreign SG strains, and they were subdivided into 7 pseudogene subgro...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceOur comparative proteome analysis indicated differences in the expression of surface proteins betweenSalmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A, and in pathogenesis-related proteins between Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis. Our findings may guide future development of novel diagnostics and vaccines, as well as understanding of disease progression.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Early trials of killed, whole-cell typhoid vaccine indicated a paradoxical, positive effect on malaria infections. British soldiers in India in 1898 reported> 90% decrease in malaria recurrences after receiving an investigational typhoid vaccine despite no intention or expectation to observe such an outcome. In the 1940s, multiple doses of intravenous typhoid vaccine appeared to control parasitemia and limit reinfection in three syphilis patients purposefully infected with Plasmodium vivax. Several modern vaccines (against human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, and malaria) use a detoxified lipid A d...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
In animal models, acute inflammation elicits behaviors related to psychiatric symptoms, including exaggerated threat sensitivity. Less is known about the effects of acute inflammation on the brain and behavior in humans. The polysaccharide form of the Salmonella Typhi vaccine elicits an acute inflammatory response and may provide a useful tool for clinical psychiatry research. Here, we examined the effects of typhoid vaccine on immune cells, cytokines, and attentional bias towards threat.
Source: Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: research
This study was undertaken to compare the expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in chickens generated by different vaccine formulations. Eighty day-old Lohmann layer chicks were divided into four groups of twenty birds each for the experiment. This comprised a non-vaccinated negative control group (NEG), a group vaccinated with the live 9R vaccine by the injection route (SC), a group vaccinated with alginate-coated chitosan microparticles encapsulating live plasmid-cured S. Gallinarum strain 9 (PC) by the oral route and a group vaccinated with a weak attenuated live S. Gallinarum strain 9 encapsulated in alginate-coa...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever, caused by the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a serious global health concern. Challenge studies with wild type S. Typhi identified associations between gut-homing regulatory T cells (Treg) and development of typhoid disease. Whether oral live-attenuated Ty21a vaccination induces gut-homing Treg remains unclear. Here, we analyze pediatric and adult Treg pre- and post-Ty21a vaccination in an autologous S. Typhi-antigen presentation model to address this knowledge gap. We show that peripheral memory Treg populations change from childhood to adulthood, but not followi...
Source: Clinical Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Clin Immunol Source Type: research
Discussion Vaccination has reduced infectious disease morbidity and mortality since its introduction. Vaccines can be given intramuscularly, subcutaneously or orally. Oral virus vaccines currently used in the US include rotavirus, cholera, typhoid and adenovirus. Adenovirus vaccine is used in military personnel. As these are attenuated viruses there is concern for household contacts who are immunocompromised who may inadvertently be exposed to the virus through fecal shedding. Additionally, there is a concern that the attenuated virus may mutate and revert back to its wild-form and potentially cause disease. Injectable po...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
(University of Liverpool) New research by the University of Liverpool and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine shows that vaccination with weakened strains of Salmonella may also protect against other infections.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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