Zoonosis: Update on Existing and Emerging Vector-Borne Illnesses in the USA

AbstractPurpose of reviewThis review describes mosquito- and tick-borne diseases found in the Western Hemisphere. It focuses on emerging diseases and recent geographic shifts in the presence of disease vectors.Recent FindingsMosquito and tick vectors have become more widespread as environmental conditions have become more favorable. Zika recently has emerged as a concern for fetal anomalies. West Nile Virus has become widespread. Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases are more prevalent in areas previously inhospitable to these ticks.SummaryHealthcare providers must consider the possibility of mosquito- and tick-borne diseases in broader geographic areas and council patients traveling to endemic areas on precautions against these diseases. Treatment for suspected cases of serious tick-borne illnesses should not be delayed pending culture results.
Source: Current Emergency and Hospital Medicine Reports - Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

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This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo the wound healing effects of babassu oil. In vitro, babassu oil increased the migration of L929 fibroblasts, inhibited the production of nitric oxide by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages, and increased the levels of INF-γ and IL-6 cytokines production. In vivo, babassu oil accelerated the healing process in a full-thickness splinted wound model, by an increase in the fibroblasts number, blood vessels, and collagen deposition in the wounds. The babassu oil also increased the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the wound site and showed an anti-inflammatory effec...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Rosa M.M. Gynthersen, Malte M. Tetens, Mathilde Ørbæk, Rasmus Haahr, Viktoria Fana, Klaus Hansen, Helene Mens, Åse Bengård Andersen, Anne-Mette Lebech
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
da HR Abstract The Northeast of Brazil has experienced a triple epidemic, with the simultaneous circulation of dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which may have contributed to the observed increase across this region of atypical forms of disease and deaths. In view of this fact, non-congenital neurological disorders related to arboviruses were compared with other etiologies, mortality and survival rates of patients admitted to referral neurology hospitals in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, from 2015 to 2018. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested usin...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Abstract Asymptomatic VL is a concern, considering the risk of transmission in highly endemic areas due to human-to-human transmission. The aim of this study was to report the sero-epidemiological prevalence in Bihar, India, a highly endemic area of VL, using the leishmanin skin test (LST) and the direct agglutination test (DAT). This was a cross-sectional study performed in Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India. Relatives of patients with VL were tested by LST and DAT. Other epidemiological data were evaluated and correlated with tests results. Forty individuals (either previous or current patients), and 109 household contac...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, 1911 and Triatoma pseudomaculata Corrêa and Espínola, 1964 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in rural communities in Northeast Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2020;62:e74 Authors: Ferreira ALDS, Santana MA, Santos LVBD, Monteiro DP, Campos JHF, Sena LLJ, Mendonça VJ Abstract Chagas disease is an important endemic morbidity in Latin America affecting millions of people in the American continent. It is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and transmitted through the feces of the insect vector belonging to the subfamily Triatominae. The prese...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
PMID: 33027394 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: These rubber residues, usually located nearby human populations, represent suitable breeding sites for arboviruses vectors such as dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and West Nile. PMID: 33030829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Biomedica Source Type: research
We report an immunocompromised patient with talaromycosis mimicking histoplamosis. A 26-year-old HIV-positive man had suffered from rashes over the face, trunk, and extremities for three months. His physical examination showed centrally necrotic, ulcerated papules and nodules. A biopsied papule revealed granulomas containing numerous oval, yeast-like cells, some displaying central septation. Saboraud agar culture grew mold with diffuse red pigment consistent with T. marneffei. Careful histopathological examination and microbiological culture are important for the accurate diagnosis of fungal infections.
Source: Dermatology Online Journal - Category: Dermatology Source Type: research
Conclusions/SignificanceThe prevalence and distribution of HTNV in HFRS-endemic areas of Gangwon Province enhanced the phylogeographic map for orthohantavirus outbreak monitoring in ROK. This study revealed the hybrid zone reflecting the genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics of HTNV circulating in Gangwon Province. The results arise awareness of rodent-borne orthohantavirus diseases for physicians in the endemic area of ROK.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Vectorborne diseases are a large and growing public health problem in the United States, characterized by geographic specificity and frequent pathogen emergence and introduction. Differences in distribution and transmission dynamics of tickborne and mosquitoborne diseases are often rooted in biologic differences of the vectors. To effectively reduce transmission and respond to outbreaks will require major national improvement of surveillance, diagnostics, reporting, and vector control, as well as new tools, including vaccines. PMID: 29723166 [PubMed - in process]
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
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