Stem Cells and Health Advances: Where Are We Now?

Treatments for eye diseases are considered among the most promising for stem cells, which have been under study for more than 3 decades. While proponents say all this groundwork is finally coming to fruition, others call progress slow and plodding.
Source: WebMD Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing analysis of MCF10A cells and identified 1166 genes that were upregulated and 861 genes that were downregulated by TGF-β. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that focal adhesion and metabolic pathways were the top enriched pathways of the up- and downregulated genes, respectively. Genes in these pathways also possess significant predictive value for renal cancers. Moreover, we confirmed that TGF-β induced expression of MICAL1 and 2, and the histone demethylase, KDM7A, and revealed their regulatory roles on TGF-β-induced cell migration. We also show a critical effec...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Lateral interbody fusion (LLIF) is often performed with biologic adjuvants to promote fusion. Commercially available bone allograft containing allogeneic stem cells (ASC) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP) are designed to promote fusion while avoiding the morbidity of iliac crest autograft; however, no study to date has directly compared the two in LLIF. The ASC studied is Osteocel Pro (NuVasive, Inc).
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Degenerative disc disease (DDD) involves the loss of viable cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) within the avascular, ischemic and hypoxic intervertebral disc (IVD) nucleus pulposus (NP). We have previously demonstrated that injection of a molecular therapeutic (NTG-101) containing TGF- β1 and CTGF can mediate the progression of DDD in a rat and canine model. However, patients suffering from more advanced degenerative disc may require cellular replacement. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) originate from a highly vascularized and immune competent niche but are inco mpatible with the...
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Pressure injuries (PIs) are a common yet challenging problem especially in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) because of immobility and anesthetic skin. They are difficult to treat with standard medical care and often recur. Recent interest in the treatment of chronic wounds like PIs has shifted from the type of dressing with or without pharmaceutical topical agents to different therapies like negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT), gene therapy and stem cell based therapies. The rationale behind the use of cell-based therapies is the fact that cells in chronic wounds are phenotypically altered or senescent or both.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Concentrate growth factor (CGF) is a third-generation platelet concentrate that releases a variety of bioactive substances and plays a good role in promoting tissue healing. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSCs) transplantation has been used to treat osteoporosis. However, effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell combined with concentrate growth factor (CGF) on postmenopausal bone defects remains elusive.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
In the majority of orthopaedic surgeries, osseointegration between an implant and surrounding bone is crucial to achieving short- and long-term stability of the implant. Since an implant's surface properties directly influence the cellular response at the cell-material interface, a number of techniques exist to modify the surface characteristics of titanium (Ti)-based implants, with the objective of achieving improved osseointegration of the implant and surrounding bone. Many of these processes, such as grit-blasting and acid-etching, create a roughened surface in a random, poorly controlled manner.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Transplantation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) has become a promising approach for bone regeneration therapies, particularly in elderly patients. However, poor cell survival in vivo after implantation due to the ischemic tissue environment has been one of the major limitations of the effectiveness of this strategy. Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 α (HIF-1α) plays an important role in angiogenic-osteogenic coupling during bone regeneration, as it is a critical mediator of the adaptive cell response to hypoxia.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Synthetic bone grafts are being developed to lessen the need for autograft and allograft. Electrospun bone grafts (ESBG) have a highly porous nanofibrous structure with a large surface area-to-volume ratio, potentially improving its osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that function as critical mediators of cell-to-cell communication via transportation of molecular cargo from a source cell to a target cell. It has previously been shown that the differentiation fate of primitive cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), can be modified toward an osteogenic path by the uptake of exosomes from defined cell types. Due to these properties, exosomes derived from a bone source such as spine seem an appropriate tool to guide the osteogenic differentiation of progenitor cells.
Source: The Spine Journal - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
This review paper looks over the technology of induced pluripotency in the context of its ability to advance the state of regenerative medicine. A little over a decade ago, it was discovered that expression just a few genes in any adult cell reprogrammed it to become an induced pluripotent stem cell, near identical to an embryonic stem cell. Such pluripotent cells are capable of forming any type of cell in the body, given the research and development needed to establish the right recipe of stimuli and signals. This technology is not just interesting as a way to potentially produce supplies of any cell and tissue type neede...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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