Stress-induced adaptations in Salmonella: a ground for shaping its Pathogenesis

Publication date: Available online 11 August 2019Source: Microbiological ResearchAuthor(s): Diana Pradhan, Vidya Devi NegiAbstractMicroorganisms are able to adapt to multiple adverse environmental conditions that facilitate their survival. These microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi, and protozoans are exposed to different abiotic and biotic challenges throughout their life. Adaptations help these organisms to overcome the challenges and evolve as successful pathogens which at the same time might lead to severe disease outcome. The intracellular gram-negative pathogen Salmonella, the causative agent of typhoid fever has evolved into a successful pathogen and shows increasing host mortality and morbidity every year across the globe. Salmonella adapts itself in the different extreme host and non-host environments both at genetic and phenotypic level leading to their better survival and propagation. The uncontrolled and improper use of antibiotics against several Salmonella serovars has not only given rise to various multidrug resistance strains but also the emergence of hyper-infectious Salmonella strains adds to the severity of disease manifestation and treatment. Besides, several disadvantages in the existing Salmonella vaccines stand against the current therapeutic interventions against the bug. This review deals with the wide array of stresses that Salmonella encounter in its life cycle and outlines the adaptations occurring in Salmonella upon exposure to...
Source: Microbiological Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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Abstract Background &objectives: The temporal trends in the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in India have not been systematically reported. We aimed to systematically review the temporal AMR trends (phenotypic and molecular mechanisms) in bacterial isolates from patients with enteric fever over two decades in India. Methods: To identify trends in AMR in India, resistance patterns among 4611 individual S. Typhi isolates and 800 S. Paratyphi A isolates, reported from 1992 to 2017 in 40 publications, were analysed. Molecular resistance determinant...
Source: The Indian Journal of Medical Research - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: Indian J Med Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Enteric-fever is a major public-health problem in India. Emergence of multidrug-resistant, Nalidixic-acid resistant and extremely-drug resistant Salmonella mandates ongoing surveillance for targeted empirical therapy and containment of spread. Repeated epidemics call for water, sanitation, hygiene and vaccination strategies to sustain herd-immunity. PMID: 30664444 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Acta Medica: Hradec Kralove - Category: General Medicine Tags: Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) Source Type: research
Purpose of review Enteric fever remains a major global-health concern, estimated to be responsible for between 11.9 and 26.9 million cases annually. Long-term prevention of enteric fever will require improved access to safe drinking water combined with investment in sanitation and hygiene interventions. In the short-to-medium term, new control strategies for typhoid fever have arrived in the form of typhoid Vi-conjugate vaccines (TCVs), offering hope that disease control can be achieved in the near future. Recent findings The diagnosis of enteric fever is complicated by its nonspecific clinical presentation, coupled w...
Source: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTIONS: Edited by A Clinton White and Gagandeep Kang Source Type: research
Abstract Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a diminishing public health problem in Vietnam, and this process may represent a prototype for typhoid elimination in Asia. Here, we review typhoid epidemiology in Vietnam over 20 years and assess the potential drivers associated with typhoid reduction. In the 1990s, multidrug resistant S. Typhi were highly prevalent in a sentinel hospital in southern Vietnam. A national typhoid incidence rate of 14.7/100,000 population per year was estimated around the new millennium. The Vietnamese government recognized the public health issue of ...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
Abstract Salmonella is one of the key global causes of food and water borne enteric infections, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide especially in developing countries. Currently available vaccines against typhoid are moderately effective with several side effects and not efficacious against all Salmonella serovars. Due to limitations of these vaccines and emerging threats of multidrug resistance, developing an effective vaccine against these infections has increasingly become a priority. Heat shock proteins (Hsps), being evolutionarily conserved, represent dominant antigens in the host im...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract Gram negative enteric bacteria, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the etiological agent of typhoid fever is a major public health problem in developing countries. While a permanent solution to the problem would require improved sanitation, food and water hygiene, controlling the infection by vaccination is urgently required due to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains in multiple countries. The currently licensed vaccines are moderately efficacious with limited applicability, and no recommended vaccines exist for younger children. We had previously reported that a candidate vaccine base...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2017 Source:The Lancet Global Health, Volume 5, Issue 3 Author(s): Florian Marks, Vera von Kalckreuth, Peter Aaby, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Muna Ahmed El Tayeb, Mohammad Ali, Abraham Aseffa, Stephen Baker, Holly M Biggs, Morten Bjerregaard-Andersen, Robert F Breiman, James I Campbell, Leonard Cosmas, John A Crump, Ligia Maria Cruz Espinoza, Jessica Fung Deerin, Denise Myriam Dekker, Barry S Fields, Nagla Gasmelseed, Julian T Hertz, Nguyen Van Minh Hoang, Justin Im, Anna Jaeger, Hyon Jin Jeon, Leon Parfait Kabore, Karen H Keddy, Frank Konings, Ralf Krumkamp, Benedikt Ley, Sandra Valborg Løfberg, J&u...
Source: The Lancet Global Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: research
Conclusions. Enteric fever in the United States is primarily associated with travel to southern Asia, and increasing resistance is adding to treatment challenges. A bivalent typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine is needed.
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Enteric fever is largely an imported disease in Singapore and has contributed to significant morbidity in children. The use of typhoid vaccine, as well as education on food and water hygiene to children travelling to developing countries, needs to be emphasised. PMID: 27523510 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore - Category: Journals (General) Authors: Tags: Ann Acad Med Singapore Source Type: research
The burden of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi is substantial and has high impact in toddlers and young children. This burden is relatively well documented in Asia, and this supplement provides new data on the substantial burden in several sub-Saharan African countries. Challenges in standardized surveillance and imperfect diagnostic tools have resulted in patchy local disease data, which are not well acknowledged or integrated into local country evidence and health awareness for decision making. There is a need to strengthen diagnostics for the generation of burden data in country. ...
Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: TYPHOID FEVER SURVEILLANCE IN AFRICA PROGRAM (TSAP) Source Type: research
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