Phytochemical-Mediated Glioma Targeted Treatment: Drug Resistance and Novel Delivery Systems.

Phytochemical-Mediated Glioma Targeted Treatment: Drug Resistance and Novel Delivery Systems. Curr Med Chem. 2019 Aug 09;: Authors: Cao H, Li X, Wang F, Zhang Y, Xiong Y, Yang Q Abstract Glioma, especially its most malignant type, glioblastoma (GBM), is the most common and the most aggressive malignant tumour in the central nervous system. Currently, we have no specific therapies that can significantly improve its dismal prognosis. Recent studies have reported promising in vitro experimental results of several novel glioma-targeting drugs; these studies are encouraging to both researchers and patients. However, clinical trials have revealed that novel compounds that focus on a single, clear glioma genetic alteration may not achieve a satisfactory outcome or have side effects that are unbearable. Based on this consensus, phytochemicals that exhibit multiple bioactivities have recently attracted much attention. Traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Indian medicine (Ayurveda) have shown that phytocompounds inhibit glioma angiogenesis, cancer stem cells and tumour proliferation; these results suggest a novel drug therapeutic strategy. However, single phytocompounds or their direct usage may not reverse comprehensive malignancy due to poor histological penetrability or relatively unsatisfactory in vivo efficiency. Recent research that has employed temozolomide combination treatment and nanoparticles (NPs) with phytocompounds has revealed a powerful dua...
Source: Current Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

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In cancer cells, aberrant DNA methylation is commonly associated with transcriptional alterations, including silencing of tumor suppressor genes. However, multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including polycomb repressive marks, contribute to gene deregulation in cancer. To dissect the relative contribution of DNA methylation–dependent and –independent mechanisms to transcriptional alterations at CpG island/promoter-associated genes in cancer, we studied 70 samples of adult glioma, a widespread type of brain tumor, classified according to their isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) mutation status. We found that most tran...
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe present study suggests that overexpression ofCD44 is associated with a poor prognosis for grade II/III glioma patients. Moreover, our findings suggest thatCD44 could serve as a prognostic biomarker in grade II/III glioma patients.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractTumour progression involves interactions among various cancer cell clones, including the cancer stem cell subpopulation and exogenous cellular components, termed cancer stromal cells. The latter include a plethora of tumour infiltrating immunocompetent cells, among which are also immuno-modulatory mesenchymal stem cells, which by vigorous migration to growing tumours and susequent transdifferentiation into various types of tumour-residing stromal cells, may either inhibit or support tumour progression. In the light of the scarce therapeutic options existing for the most malignant brain tumour glioblastoma, mesenchy...
Source: Cancer Microenvironment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study investigates the effects of ectopic overexpression of the L1 long ectodomain (L1LE; ˜180 kDa) on the motility, proliferation, and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells (HNPs). L1LE was ectopically expressed in HNPs using a lentiviral vector. Surprisingly, overexpression of L1LE resulted in reduced HNP motility in vitro, in stark contrast to the effects on glioma and other cancer cell types. L1LE overexpression resulted in a variable degree of maintenance of HNP proliferation in media without added growth factors but did not increase proliferation. In monolayer culture, HNPs expressed a va...
Source: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Int J Dev Neurosci Source Type: research
In this study, we show that oncogenic signalling induces redistribution of EZH2 across the genome, which in turn misregulates key homeotic genes and corrupts the identity of neural cells. Characterisation of EZH2 direct targets in de novo transformed cells reveals that acquisition of tumorigenic potential is accompanied by a transcriptional switch involving de-repression of spinal cord-specifying HOX genes and concomitant silencing of the empty spiracles homologue EMX2, a key regulator of neurogenesis in the forebrain and negative regulator of neural stem cell proliferation. Our results suggest that by redistributing EZH2 ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
In this study, we show that oncogenic signalling induces redistribution of EZH2 across the genome, which in turn misregulates key homeotic genes and corrupts the identity of neural cells. Characterisation of EZH2 direct targets in de novo transformed cells reveals that acquisition of tumorigenic potential is accompanied by a transcriptional switch involving de-repression of spinal cord-specifying HOX genes and concomitant silencing of the empty spiracles homologue EMX2, a key regulator of neurogenesis in the forebrain and negative regulator of neural stem cell proliferation. Our results suggest that by redistributing EZH2 ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
a Masashi Okada Glioblastoma is a primary brain tumor associated with a poor prognosis due to its high chemoresistance capacity. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are one of the mechanisms of chemoresistance. Although therapy targeting CSCs is promising, strategies targeting CSCs remain unsuccessful. Abnormal activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) due to amplification, mutation, or both of the EGFR gene is common in glioblastomas. However, glioblastomas are resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), and overcoming resistance is essential. Brexpiprazole is a new, safe serotonin-dopamine activity...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Authors: Brown DV, Stylli SS, Kaye AH, Mantamadiotis T Abstract Glioblastoma is a primary tumor of the brain with a poor prognosis. Pathological examination shows that this disease is characterized by intra-tumor morphological heterogeneity, while numerous and ongoing genomic analysis reveals multiple layers of heterogeneity. Intra-tumor and patient-to-patient heterogeneity is underpinned by cellular, genetic, and molecular heterogeneity, which is thought to be key determinants of time to tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy. The key cell type believed to contribute to the establishment and ongoing evolution ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
In conclusion, our results indicate that HDACis are promising candidates for blocking vascular mimicry in GBM.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of primary malignant brain tumor. Molecular hydrogen has been considered a preventive and therapeutic medical gas in many diseases including cancer. In our study, we ...
Source: Stem Cell Research and Therapy - Category: Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
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