Redistribution, Homing and Organ-Invasion of Neoplastic Stem Cells in Myeloid Neoplasms

Publication date: Available online 10 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Peter Valent, Irina Sadovnik, Gregor Eisenwort, Harald Herrmann, Karin Bauer, Niklas Mueller, Wolfgang R. Sperr, Daniel Wicklein, Udo SchumacherAbstractThe development of a myeloid neoplasm is a step-wise process that originates from leukemic stem cells (LSC) and includes pre-leukemic stages, overt leukemia and a drug-resistant terminal phase. Organ-invasion may occur in any stage, but is usually associated with advanced disease and a poor prognosis. Sometimes, extra-medullary organ invasion shows a metastasis-like or even sarcoma-like destructive growth of neoplastic cells in local tissue sites. Examples are myeloid sarcoma, mast cell sarcoma and localized blast phase of chronic myeloid leukemia. So far, little is known about mechanisms underlying re-distribution and extramedullary dissemination of LSC in myeloid neoplasms. In this article, we discuss mechanisms through which LSC can mobilize out of the bone marrow niche, can transmigrate from the blood stream into extramedullary organs, can invade local tissue sites and can potentially create or support the formation of local stem cell niches. In addition, we discuss strategies to interfere with LSC expansion and organ invasion by targeted drug therapies.
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Markus Hartl* and Rainer Schneider Center of Molecular Biosciences (CMBI), Institute of Biochemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria The neuronal proteins GAP43 (neuromodulin), MARCKS, and BASP1 are highly expressed in the growth cones of nerve cells where they are involved in signal transmission and cytoskeleton organization. Although their primary structures are unrelated, these signaling proteins share several structural properties like fatty acid modification, and the presence of cationic effector domains. GAP43, MARCKS, and BASP1 bind to cell membrane phospholipids, a process reversibly regulate...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that in the presence of an HIV-1 infection, the cellular distribution of FcγRIIIa is altered and that the functional consequence of FcγRIIIa variant is affected. Importantly, it underscores the need to characterize FcγR expression, cellular distribution and functional consequences of FcγR genetic variants within a specific environment or disease state. Introduction Receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulin G (IgG), so called Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), link the specificity of IgG with potent effector functions of the innate immune system. Fc&ga...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the high structural diversity of these compounds pinpoints the significant range of inhibition strategies that can be conceived to target the class I methyltransferases. Although the structural details of the various members of this family are unique, the success stories of drug design for several enzymes belonging to this family portends the likely achievement of discovering potent and selective inhibitors of METTL3/METTL14. Author Contributions AF and AP wrote the manuscript. ZI revised and edited manuscript and prepared figures. Funding This work was supported by Associazione Italiana Ricerca sul Canc...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of 2nd hematological malignancies post to the initial cancer treatment.METHODS: A retrospective study was performed to analyze the available clinical data of 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematologic malignancies after treatment of various malignant tumors from June 1998 to June 2018 at Sun Yat-sen University cancer center.RESULTS: The characteristics of the 116 patients diagnosed with 2nd hematological cancer post to initial cancer treatment were indicated as following: 62 males and 54 females. The primary tumor category was grouped as (according to ICD-10 International Di...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 904. Outcomes Research-Malignant Conditions Source Type: research
AbstractWith the advent of precision medicine, medical oncology is undergoing a transcendental change. These molecular studies have allowed us to learn about potential targeted therapies for patients with advanced cancers. Perhaps the best‐known example of success in precision medicine is chronic myeloid leukemia and its response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the BCR‐ABL kinase. Since that original discovery, the role of molecular therapeutics has expanded, and it now presents us with treatment options for common malignancies and rare atypical tumors. In this article, we present a case of a 61‐year‐old fe...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Sarcomas, Precision Medicine, Cancer Diagnostics and Molecular Pathology Precision Medicine Clinic: Molecular Tumor Board Source Type: research
Conditions:   Acute Myeloid Leukemia;   Blast Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive;   Blasts 10 Percent or Less of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells;   High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome;   Myeloid Sarcoma;   Myeloproliferative Neoplasm;   Philadelphia Chromosome Positive Interventions:   Drug: Cladribine;   Drug: Cytarabine;   Drug: Dexrazoxane Hydrochloride;   Drug: Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin;   Drug: Idarubicin Sponsors:   M.D. Anderson Cancer Center;  ...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
This study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population‐based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5,192 children with cancer (age 0‐14 years) from six prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21,295 children diagnosed in England during 1993‐2010. Differences in incidence rates between the two countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan‐Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumours, and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those i...
Source: Cancer Science - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Authors: Salmaninejad A, Zamani MR, Pourvahedi M, Golchehre Z, Bereshneh AH, Rezaei N Abstract Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are named based on their expression pattern that is restricted in a number of normal and abnormal tissues. Tumor cells frequently express antigens whose expression is typically restricted to germ cells. Their unique expression pattern is guaranteed by precise epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. Because of their tumor-limited, high immunogenicity, and biased expression, discovery of these molecules provides unprecedented opportunities for further research and clinical development in the field of...
Source: Immunological Investigations - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunol Invest Source Type: research
ian, L J Medeiros &S Hu
Source: Blood Cancer Journal - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
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