Effect of Chlorhexidine bathing on colonization or infection with Acinetobacter baumannii-a systematic review and meta-analysis

Publication date: Available online 9 August 2019Source: Journal of Hospital InfectionAuthor(s): Cheng-Yi Fan, Wan-Ting Lee, Tzu-Chun Hsu, Cheng-Han Lee, Shiao-Pei Wang, Wen-Shan Chen, Chien-Hua Huang, Chien-Chang LeeSummaryBackgrounds: Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDRGNB) have increased prevalence in intensive care units (ICUs). A common strategy to prevent HAI is bathing patients with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). However, the effectiveness of CHG bathing against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) is still controversial.AimTo perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effectiveness of CHG bathing on Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection in the ICU setting.MethodsStudies searched from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and CINAHL from inception through June 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), pre-post studies, or interrupted time series (ITS) studies. Number of patients with/without colonization or infection of A. baumannii in the experimental or control groups were extracted from each study. Quality assessment was performed by the related instruments of National Institute of Health. Pooled risk ratios were calculated using the random-effect model.Findings1 RCT and 12 pre-post or ITS studies comprising 18,217 patients were included, of which 8,069 were in the CHG bathing arm and 9,051 in the control arm. CHG bathing was associated with a reduced colonization of A. bauman...
Source: Journal of Hospital Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research

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ConclusionThe prevalence of MDR-GNB in Iranian burn patients is very high. Thus, a comprehensive infectious control programme, a reduction in the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, and thorough information regarding antimicrobial resistance patterns is required.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionThis is the first report of the genome sequence of an A. baumannii ST1928 clinical isolate carrying a novel class C β-lactamase gene from China. The genome sequence data can be used as a reference sequence for comparative studies and would facilitate further understanding of the antimicrobial resistance mechanisms of A. baumannii at the genomic level.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports, for the first time, the emergence of plasmid-mediated mcr-1-encoded colistin resistance in multidrug resistant strains of A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Further large scales studies are recommended to investigate the prevalence of this mode of resistance in these highly pathogenic bacteria.
Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
In conclusion, mcr-1-positive E. coli environmental isolates were mostly characterised by positive for APEC-associated virulence genes. Co-presence of those genes may suggest the existence of common source in animals and/or their associated environments.IMPORTANCE Colistin is considered as a last-line therapeutic option in severe infections due to multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, in particular carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Increasing prevalence of mcr genes in diverse Enterobacteriaceae species, mainly E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from humans and ...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Members of the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex are nosocomial pathogens frequently causing multidrug-resistant infections that are increasing at alarming rates. A. baumannii has become the Gram-negative bacterium with the highest rate of multidrug resistance. As such, it is categorized by the World Health Organization as a critical priority for the research and development of new antimicrobial therapies. The zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidase CpaA is a predominant substrate of the type II secretion system (T2SS). CpaA is also a virulence factor of medically relevant Acinetobacter strains that specifically de...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Microbiology Source Type: research
Discussion: The infection rate in our centre compared to previous studies of comparable patients was matching. Effective management of postoperative infections should be considered, and identified risk factors in this study can help to focus on effective prevention and treatment strategies. PMID: 31467552 [PubMed]
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract Candida auris is an emerging pathogenic yeast responsible for nosocomial infections with high mortality, on a global scale. A 65-year-old woman with hypovolemic shock and severe metabolic acidosis was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Shortly after admission, she developed ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, which necessitated treatment with high-dose ampicillin-sulbactam. Two weeks later, a yeast was cultured from her blood. It formed pale pink colonies on CHROMagar Candida medium and produced predominantly oval budding yeast cells...
Source: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Ann Clin Lab Sci Source Type: research
Purpose of review To describe recent data about Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia epidemiology and the therapeutic options including adjunctive nebulized therapy. Recent findings A. baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial pneumonia in certain geographic areas affecting mainly debilitated patients, with prolonged hospitalization and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Inappropriate empirical treatment has clearly been associated with increased mortality in A. baumannii pneumonia. Carbapenems may not be considered the treatment of choice in areas with high rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Nowadays, polymyxins are...
Source: Current Opinion in Critical Care - Category: Nursing Tags: SEVERE INFECTIONS: Edited by Michael S. Niederman Source Type: research
[Latin American consensus to define, categorize, and report multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, or pandrug-resistant pathogensConsenso latino-americano para definição, categorização e notificação de patógenos multirresistentes, com resistência ampliada ou panresistentes]. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2019;43:e65 Authors: Jiménez Pearson MA, Galas M, Corso A, Hormazábal JC, Duarte Valderrama C, Salgado Marcano N, Ramón-Pardo P, Melano RG Abstract This document presents a Latin American consensus to standardize definitio...
Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Rev Panam Salud Publica Source Type: research
In this study, Acinetobacter baumannii phage vB_AbaS_D0 was isolated, characterized and used to control the phage resistance development in bacterial strains. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of vB_AbaS_D0 indicated it belonged to the Siphoviridae family with an icosahedral head. Its whole genome was 43, 051 bp in size, with a GC content of 45.48 % and 55 putative open reading frames. The data showed that vB_AbaS_D0 was a virulent phage. Although vB_AbaS_D0 had a very weak bactericidal activity, a wide range of Acinetobacter baumannii strains were sensitive to it. The results suggested that the cocktail of vB_AbaS...
Source: Virus Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Virus Res Source Type: research
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