Half of Tamiflu prescriptions went unused during 2009 H1N1 swine flu pandemic, UK sewage study

(Centre for Ecology &Hydrology) A new study concludes that approximately half of the prescriptions of Tamiflu during the 2009-10 influenza pandemic went unused in England. The unused medication represents approximately 600,000 courses of Tamiflu at a cost of around £7.8 million to the UK taxpayer. The finding, published online in the open access scientific journal PLOS ONE, comes from the first study of its kind to use sewage water to estimate drug compliance rates.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: Global & Universal Source Type: news

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The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the PA subunit on the replication and airborne transmission of the H9N2 subtype AIV. By reverse genetics, a reassortant rSD01-PA was derived from the H9N2 subtype AIV A/Chicken/Shandong/01/2008 (SD01) by introducing the PA gene from the pandemic influenza A H1N1 virus A/swine/Shandong/07/2011 (SD07). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens and guinea pigs were selected as the animal models for replication and aerosol transmission studies. Results show that rSD01-PA lost the ability of airborne transmission among SPF chickens because of the single substitution of the PA...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 8 September 2018Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Vladislav Victorovich Khrustalev, Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva, Larisa Valentinovna KordyukovaAbstractThe aim of this study was to construct a vaccine peptide candidate against pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin and to test its structure. With the help of bioinformatic algorithms we showed that the sequence encoding the second polypeptide of pandemic Influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA2) is protected from nonsynonymous mutations better than the sequence encoding its first polypeptide (HA1). With the help of secondary and ternar...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewZoonotic influenza viruses are those that cross the animal-human barrier and can cause disease in humans, manifesting from minor respiratory illnesses to multiorgan dysfunction. They have also been implicated in the causation of deadly pandemics in recent history. The increasing incidence of infections caused by these viruses worldwide has necessitated focused attention to improve both diagnostic as well as treatment modalities. In this first part of a two-part review, we describe the structure of zoonotic influenza viruses, the relationship between mutation and pandemic capacity, pathogenesis of i...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
AbstractThe emergence of swine-origin pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) in 2009 invigorated extensive surveillance programs worldwide which have resulted in the deposition of large numbers of H1N1 sequences to Genbank. In the present study, we report on global evolution and dynamics of the pandemic H1N1 influenza Hemagglutinin (HA) protein in viruses isolated from three different continents (North America, Europe and Asia) during the period between April 2009 until April 2017. Close to 2000 HA full protein sequences were downloaded from the Influenza Research Database of the NCBI and analyzed using DNAStar to run an alignment, the web...
Source: Archives of Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
AbstractNovel H1N2 and H3N2 swine influenza A viruses (IAVs) were identified in commercial farms in Chile. These viruses contained H1, H3 and N2 sequences, genetically divergent from IAVs described worldwide, associated with pandemic internal genes. Guinea pigs were used as human surrogate to evaluate the infection dynamics of these reassortant viruses, compared with a pandemic H1N1 virus. All viruses replicated and were shed in the upper respiratory tract without prior adaptation although H1N2 viruses showed the highest shedding titers. This could have public health importance, emphasizing the need to carry out further st...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 September 2018Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Volume 157Author(s): Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Séverine Hervé, Nicolas Rose, Nicolas Barbier, François Casabianca, Oscar Maestrini, Alessandra Falchi, Gaëlle SimonAbstractCorsica is a mountainous French island in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. It is a rural area, where pig farming is a major economic activity. Although no acute respiratory outbreaks due to swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) have ever been reported in this free-ranging pig breeding system, influenza A viruses (IAVs) could be circulating within th...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus and pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus cause human infections, while avian H7N2 and swine H1N1 virus mainly infect birds and pigs, respectively. There is no robust in vitro model for assessing the infectivity of emerging viruses in humans. Based on a recently established method,...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): Sébastien Grech-Angelini, Séverine Hervé, Nicolas Rose, Nicolas Barbier, François Casabianca, Oscar Maestrini, Alessandra Falchi, Gaëlle Simon Corsica is a mountainous French island in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. It is a rural area, where pig farming is a major economic activity. Although no acute respiratory outbreaks due to swine influenza A viruses (swIAVs) have ever been reported in this free-ranging pig breeding system, influenza A viruses (IAVs) could be circulating within this p...
Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Baik Seong Glycosylation of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of the influenza provides crucial means for immune evasion and viral fitness in a host population. However, the time-dependent dynamics of each glycosylation sites have not been addressed. We monitored the potential N-linked glycosylation (NLG) sites of over 10,000 HA and NA of H1N1 subtype isolated from human, avian, and swine species over the past century. The results show a shift in glycosylation sites as a hallmark of 1918 and 2009 pandemics, and also for the 1976 “abortive pandemic”. Co-segregation of particular glycosylation si...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The objective was to analyze the impact of this pandemic on the acceptance of xenotransplantation among veterinary science degree students.
Source: Transplantation Proceedings - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
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