Decision-Making Around Positive Tracheal Aspirate Cultures: The Role of Neutrophil Semiquantification in Antibiotic Prescribing

Conclusions: Microscopic purulence was an independent predictor of antibiotic therapy for positive tracheal aspirate cultures in our PICUs. However, microscopic purulence was not associated with clinical symptomatology.
Source: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Tags: Online Clinical Investigations Source Type: research

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Authors: Ghaffari J, Mohammadjafari H, Mohammadi GH, Mahdavi MR Abstract INTRODUCTION: One of the most serious complications of acute febrilepyelonephritis in children is the development of renal scar. Thisstudy aimed to investigate the effect of dexamethasone on urinarycytokine levels and renal scar in children with acute pyelonephritis. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 60 childrenaged 3 months to 12 years with acute febrile pyelonephritis enrolled.The experimental group was treated with a combination of antibioticand dexamethasone, and the control group underwent treatmentwith antibiotic ...
Source: Iranian Journal of Kidney Diseases - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Iran J Kidney Dis Source Type: research
Conclusion: The isolates of A. actinomycetemcomitans displayed a high level of resistance to azithromycin and clindamycin. Development of resistance against tetracycline also appears to be significant. Variable resistance among the different members of the cephalosporin group is a factor to be investigated further since susceptibility profile against these antibiotics and interpretative criteria for oral bacteria are not available.
Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology - Category: ENT & OMF Authors: Source Type: research
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have spread rapidly around the world in the past few years, posing great challenges to human health. The plasmid-mediated horizontal transmission of carbapenem-resistance genes is the main cause of the surge in the prevalence of CRE. Therefore, the timely and accurate detection of CRE, especially carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, is very important for the clinical prevention and treatment of these infections. A variety of methods for the rapid detection of CRE phenotypes and genotypes have been developed for use in clinical microbiology laboratories. Because the choic...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study compared treatment failures between patients treated exclusively with IV antibiotics and those transitioned from IV to oral antibiotics for bacteraemia secondary to UTI.MethodsThis single-centre, retrospective cohort study included hospitalised, non-critically ill adult patients treated with culture-susceptible antibiotic therapy for 7–21 days. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on the route of definitive antibiotic administration. Treatment failure was a composite outcome of death and recurrence of the index micro-organism within 21 days following negative blood cultures.Results and discussionAm...
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, the key pharmacodynamic parameter (MIC) was determined for Pasteurella multocida and Mannhaemaia haemolytica isolated from ovine respiratory clinical cases using accepted laboratory methods for bacterial isolation, identification and MIC determination. In the case of Pasteurella multocida, for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, MICrange, MIC50 and MIC90 values were 0.004–32 μg/mL, 0.063 μg/mL and 1 μg/mL; for tetracycline 0.016-256 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL, and 32 μg/mL; for enrofloxacin 0.002–32 μg/mL, 0.016 μg/mL and 0.5 μg/mL; for doxycycline 0.063–32 μg/mL, 1 μg/mL an...
Source: Small Ruminant Research - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Abstract PURPOSE: A novel automatic discontinuation policy implemented within an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is described, and results of an evaluation of the policy's effects on antibiotic usage are reported. METHODS: A retrospective, before-and-after study was conducted at an 800-bed, tertiary care, academic teaching hospital to evaluate selected antibiotic usage outcomes in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU adult patients targeted for ASP interventions before and after implementation of an automatic discontinuation of antibiotics policy (ADAP) authorizing the ASP team to automatically ...
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research
Conclusion: New onset symptoms or persistent symptoms in SBO suggest progressive disease and necessitate re-evaluation of the microbial aetiology and antimicrobial treatment. Skull base osteomyelitis induced aneurysm is rare but can be life threatening, if not identified and managed immediately.
Source: Otology and Neurotology - Category: ENT & OMF Tags: MIDDLE EAR AND MASTOID DISEASE Source Type: research
Authors: Tanzella G, Motos A, Battaglini D, Meli A, Torres A Abstract Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has the highest rate of mortality of all infectious diseases, especially among the elderly. Severe CAP (sCAP) is defined as a CAP in which intensive care management is required and is associated with an unfavorable clinical course. Areas covered: This review aims to identify prevention strategies for reducing the incidence of CAP and optimized management of sCAP. We highlight the main prevention approaches for CAP, focusing on the latest vaccination plans and on the influence of health-risk behavio...
Source: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Respir Med Source Type: research
In this Journal, Lelouvier and colleagues reported the use of 16S metagenomic sequencing to diagnose polymicrobial and culture-negative bacteraemia.1 We also used 16S rDNA PCR to study the bacteriology of bacterial pyomyositis, a rare infection of skeletal muscles in which cultures are often sterile as most patients are receiving antibiotic therapy for days or even weeks prior to aspiration of pus.2 Indeed, establishing the diagnosis is a clinical challenge as initial symptoms are nonspecific and last for a mean duration of 23 days before hospitalization.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Authors: Patzakis MJ, Levin LS, Zalavras CG, Marcus RE Abstract Open fractures are contaminated wounds that contain gram-positive and gram-negative organisms; therefore, wide-spectrum antibiotic therapy should be incorporated into the treatment plan. Antibiotics should be initiated as soon after injury as possible, preferably within 3 hours of injury, after which time the rate of infection has been reported to increase. Time to surgical débridement within 12 hours of injury has not been reported to affect the rate of infection, given that a patient is being treated with antibiotics. An antibiotic bead pouch ...
Source: Instructional Course Lectures - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Instr Course Lect Source Type: research
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