Cytomegalovirus in the Immunology of Aging

The open access editorial noted here serves as an introduction to some of the current thinking on the role of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the age-related decline of the immune system. CMV infection is pervasive throughout the population, particularly in the old. This persistent viral infection cannot be effectively cleared by the immune system, and an ever greater percentage of immune cells become uselessly specialized to fight CMV. This leaves ever fewer immune cells ready to tackle other threats. This seems an important component of immune dysfunction, one that can perhaps be addressed by selectively destroying these immune cells to free up space for replacements. The research community is by no means unified on this view of CMV, however, as illustrated here. Aging represents a paradox of immunodeficiency and inflammation (inflammaging) and autoimmunity. Over the lifespan there are changes in the architecture and functioning of the immune system, often termed immunosenescence. Recently, there have been major developments in understanding the cellular and molecular bases, and genetic and epigenetic changes, in the innate and the adaptive immune system during aging, and the interactions between these separate arms of vertebrate immunity. Limited longitudinal studies have begun to reveal biomarkers of immune aging, which may be considered to constitute an "immune risk profile" (IRP) predicting mortality and frailty in the very elderly. Hallmark parameters of th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs

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Purpose of review Studying primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) provides insights into human antiviral immunity in the natural infectious environment. This review describes new PIDs with genetic defects that impair innate antiviral responses. Recent findings New genetic defects in the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway include IFNAR1 deficiency, which causes uncontrolled infections with measles-mumps-rubella or yellow fever vaccines, and possibly also cytomegalovirus (CMV); and IRF9 deficiency, which results in influenza virus susceptibility. Genetic defects in several pattern recognition receptors include MDA5 deficienc...
Source: Current Opinion in Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Tags: ALLERGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND RELATED DISORDERS: Edited by Jordan S. Orange Source Type: research
The TWiVologists consider whether to receive an influenza vaccine in August (in the northern hemisphere), and mice implanted with human lung fragments for studying microbial pathogens. Click arrow to play Download TWiV 563 (55 MB .mp3, 91 min) Subscribe (free): iTunes, Google Podcasts, RSS, email Become a patron of TWiV!
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: This Week in Virology BLT mouse coronavirus flu vaccine human cytomegalovirus humanized mouse immunodeficient mice influenza lung implant mouse model vaccine effectiveness viral viruses zika virus Source Type: blogs
Oregon Health&Science University received a grant from the Gates Foundation to develop the Holy Grail of vaccines: a universal flu vaccine. OHSU is one of about six institutions that are splitting up to $12 million through the Grand Challenge for Universal Influenza Vaccine Development. The basis for OHSU’s effort will be its cytomegalovirus platform, which it is already using to develop vaccines against HIV and tuberculosis. The i nfluenza virus would be inserted into the CMV vector to stimulate…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Biotechnology headlines - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Source Type: news
Abstract Celiac disease is a complex autoimmune enteropathy of the small intestine that commonly occurs in genetically predisposed individuals due to intake of gluten and related proteins. Gluten consumption, duration of breast-feeding, various infections, especially frequent intestine infections, vaccinations and use of antibiotics can be linked to celiac disease. It is predicted that it affects 1% of the global population and its incidence rate is increasing. Celiac disease is closely related to Turner's syndrome, type I diabetes mellitus, Down's syndrome, and other autoimmune conditions and most people with the...
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research
In this study, we found that cofilin competes with tau for direct microtubule binding in vitro, in cells, and in vivo, which inhibits tau-induced microtubule assembly. Genetic reduction of cofilin mitigates tauopathy and synaptic defects in Tau-P301S mice and movement deficits in tau transgenic C. elegans. The pathogenic effects of cofilin are selectively mediated by activated cofilin, as active but not inactive cofilin selectively interacts with tubulin, destabilizes microtubules, and promotes tauopathy. These results therefore indicate that activated cofilin plays an essential intermediary role in neurotoxic signaling th...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Mireia Pedragosa1†, Graciela Riera1†, Valentina Casella1, Anna Esteve-Codina2,3, Yael Steuerman4, Celina Seth1, Gennady Bocharov5,6, Simon Heath2,3, Irit Gat-Viks4, Jordi Argilaguet1* and Andreas Meyerhans1,7* 1Infection Biology Laboratory, Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS), Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 2CNAG-CRG, Center for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Barcelona, Spain 3Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain 4Cell Research and Immunology Department, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 5Marchuk Institute of Numeric...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Mark K. Slifka1* and Ian J. Amanna2 1Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States2Najít Technologies, Inc., Beaverton, OR, United States Vaccines play a vital role in protecting our communities against infectious disease. Unfortunately, some vaccines provide only partial protection or in some cases vaccine-mediated immunity may wane rapidly, resulting in either increased susceptibility to that disease or a requirement for more booster vaccinations in order to maintain immunity above a protective level. The durability of a...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In conclusion, circulating MDSCs are measurable, functional and have a G-MDSC phenotype in lung transplant patients. Their frequency is increased in stable patients, decreased during post-transplant complications, and related to level of immunosuppression. This study may pave the way for further investigations of MDSC in the context of lung transplantation. Introduction From a transplant immunological point of view, graft acceptance is the fundamental element in allograft survival. Graft acceptance is realized by blocking the immune system with immunosuppression preventing host immune cells to recognized and attack...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives Being exquisitely regulated by “writers,” “erasers,” and “readers,” additional repelled proteins or miRNAs, m6A modification relates to nearly any step of mRNA metabolism, as well as ncRNA processing and circRNA translation. There is compelling evidence suggesting that m6A modification is especially critical in a variety of pathologic and physiologic immune responses including T cell homeostasis and differentiation, inflammation, and type I interferon production. Further results have indicated that aberrancies of interferon and Th17 frequencies in systemic lu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Paul V. Lehmann1*, Maneewan Suwansaard1, Ting Zhang1, Diana R. Roen1, Greg A. Kirchenbaum1, Alexey Y. Karulin1, Alexander Lehmann1 and Pedro A. Reche2 1Cellular Technology Ltd., Shaker Heights, OH, United States 2Laboratorio de Inmunomedicina &Inmunoinformatica, Departamento de Immunologia &O2, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain T cell immunity is traditionally assessed through functional recall assays, which detect the consequences of the T cells' antigen encounter, or via fluorescently labeled multimers that selectively bind peptide-specific T cell receptors....
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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