Human Polyomavirus JCPyV and Its Role in Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy and Oncogenesis

The human neurotropic virus JCPyV, a member of the Polyomaviridiae family, is the opportunistic infectious agent of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML), a fatal disease seen in severe immunosuppressive conditions and, during the last decade, in patients undergoing immunotherapy. JCPyV is a ubiquitous pathogen with up to 85% of the adult population word-wide exhibiting antibodies against it. Early experiments demonstrated that direct inoculation of JCPyV into the brain of different species resulted in the development of brain tumors and other neuroectodermal-derived neoplasias. Later, several reports showed the detection of viral sequences in medulloblastomas and glial tumors, as well as expression of the viral protein T-Antigen. Few oncogenic viruses, however, have caused so much controversy regarding their role in the pathogenesis brain tumors, but the discovery of new Polyomaviruses that cause Merkel cell carcinomas in humans and brain tumors in racoons, in addition to the role of JCPyV in colon cancer and multiple mechanistic studies have shed much needed light on the role of JCPyV in cancer. The pathways affected by the viral protein T-Antigen include cell cycle regulators, like p53 and pRb, and transcription factors that activate pro-proliferative genes, like c-Myc. In addition, infection with JCPyV causes chromosomal damage and T-Antigen inhibits homologous recombination, and activates anti-apoptotic proteins, such as Survivin. Here we review the different ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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In conclusion, this review reported that IL-37 has a crucial role in reducing infection-associated inflammation and has a good impact on inflammation-induced pathology. However, tight regulation that achieved balance between effector immune responses that required for pathogen elimination and limited tissue damage that resulted from excessive inflammation should be existed in the potential IL-37 therapy to prevent clinical complications of a disease. PMID: 31633447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Reviews of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Int Rev Immunol Source Type: research
Date: Tuesday, 11 12, 2019; Speaker: Meira Epplein, PhD, Associate Professor in Population Health Sciences, Associate Prof in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Duke University School of Medicine ; http://epi.grants.cancer.gov/events/infectious-age
Source: NIH Calendar of Events - Category: American Health Source Type: events
Conclusions: The results indicate that a possible mechanism behind an anastomotic leakage is an impaired circulation and thus insufficient saturation to the small intestine peroperatively. This develops into an inflammation both intraperitoneally and intravenously, which, if not reversed, spread within the gastrointestinal tract .The colorectal anastomosis is the most vulnerable part of the gastrointestinal tract postoperatively and hypoxia and inflammation may occur there, and an anastomosis leakage will be the consequence. PMID: 31630578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Scand J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
ConclusionRRA must be initiated within 58 days after surgery in patients with high-risk DTCs. Under this approach, risk of SIR and associated mortality risk may be reduced. RRA timing for women in reproductive ages with low/intermediate risk groups may be planned according to their pregnancy/breastfeeding intent. For other low/intermediate risk groups, they can safely proceed according to the capacity of the medical facility and related logistical considerations.ResumenIntroducciónEs difícil adoptar un enfoque científico basado en la evidencia con respecto al intervalo de aplicación de la ablaci...
Source: Revista Espanola de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Muhammad Younis, Wang Faming, Zhao Hongyan, Tan Mengmeng, Song Hang, Yuan LiudiAbstractGlioma is the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system, with the highest mortality rate. The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of Iguratimod (IGU) encapsulated- poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (IGU-PLGA-NPs), which showed inhibition of glioma cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. IGU was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm w...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Duo Lin, Qiong Wu, Sufang Qiu, Guannan Chen, Shangyuan Feng, Rong Chen, Haishan ZengAbstractDevelopment of a sensitive, rapid and easy-to-use liquid biopsy method is of imperative clinical value for point-of-care caner diagnostics. Here, a label-free and modification-free nanotechnology based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was employed for DNA analysis. Using the SERS signals of phosphate backbone as internal standard, quantitative detection for nucleobases was achieved even at single base l...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of MutagenesisAuthor(s): Mohammad-Taghi Bahreyni-Toossi, Elham Dolat, Hashem Khanbabaei, Navid Zafari, Hosein AzimianAbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal type of primary brain tumor. Currently, even with optimal and multimodal cancer therapies, the survival rate of GBM patients remains poor. One reason for inadequate response of GBM tumors to radiotherapy is radioresistance (RR). Thus, there is a critical need for new insights about GBM treatment to increase the chance of treatment. microRNAs (miRNAs) a...
Source: Mutation Research Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis - Category: Cytology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Journal of Clinical NeuroscienceAuthor(s): Stephen Bacchi, Toby Zerner, John Dongas, Adon Toru Asahina, Amal Abou-Hamden, Sophia Otto, Luke Oakden-Rayner, Sandy PatelAbstractThe identification of high-grade glioma (HGG) progression may pose a diagnostic dilemma due to similar appearances of treatment-related changes (TRC) (e.g. pseudoprogression or radionecrosis). Deep learning (DL) may be able to assist with this task. MRI scans from consecutive patients with histologically confirmed HGG (grade 3 or 4) were reviewed. Scans for which recurrence or TRC was queried we...
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yu Dong, Tao Xu, Shouping Zhong, Bo Wang, Huimin Zhang, Xin Wang, Peng Wang, Guangshun Li, Shuanying YangAbstractAimsCircular RNAs (circRNAs) acted as key regulators in the development of various human tumors. Our present study aimed to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of circ_0076305 in regulating cisplatin (DDP) resistance of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Main methodsUsing RT-qPCR, the expressions of circ_0076305 in NSCLC tissues and cells (A549, H1650, A549/DDP, H1650/DDP) were measured. Through loss-of-function and overex...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 21 October 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Russell Posner, Reinhard LaubenbacherAbstractMicroRNAs are a class of short, noncoding RNAs which are essential for the coordination and timing of cell differentiation and embryonic development. However, despite their guiding role in development, microRNAs are dysregulated in many pathologies, including nearly all cases of cancer. While both development and oncogenesis can be thought of as extremes of phenotypic plasticity, they characteristically manifest on much different time scales: one taking place over a matter of weeks...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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