Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1126: The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway: A Viable Target in Breast Cancer?

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1126: The Hedgehog Signaling Pathway: A Viable Target in Breast Cancer? Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11081126 Authors: Priyanka Bhateja Mathew Cherian Sarmila Majumder Bhuvaneswari Ramaswamy The hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays a key role in embryonic development and stem cell programs. Deregulation of the Hh pathway is a key driver of basal cell carcinoma, and therapeutic targeting led to approval of Hh inhibitor, vismodegib, in the management of this cancer. The Hh pathway is implicated in other malignancies including hormone receptor (HR+) positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Hh signaling, which is activated in human mammary stem cells, results in activation of glioma-associated oncogene (GLI) transcription factors. High GLI1 expression correlates with worse outcomes in breast cancer. Non-canonical GLI1 activation is one mechanism by which estrogen exposure promotes breast cancer stem cell proliferation and epithelial–mesenchymal transition. Tamoxifen resistant cell lines show aberrant activation of Hh signaling, and knockdown of Hh pathway inhibited growth of tamoxifen resistant cells. As in other cancers Hh signaling is activated by the PI3K/AKT pathway in these endocrine resistant cell lines. Hh pathway activation has also been reported to mediate chemotherapy resistance in TNBC via various mechanisms including paracrine signaling to tumor micro-environment and selective proliferation of cancer stem cells. Co-activ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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This is a public health success story. A landmark report on the effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHP) in the U.S. is now a matter of medical record. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the U.S., with nearly 80 million people infected with some type of HPV at some point in their lives [1]. About 14 million Americans, including teens, become infected each year [2]. HPV causes genital warts and is associated with an estimated 33,700 newly diagnosed cancers every year in the U.S.
Source: Journal of Adolescent Health - Category: Child Development Authors: Tags: Editorial Source Type: research
Authors: Liu X, Yang G, Huang J, Chai L, Liu X, Dai Q, Yang Z Abstract Aim: KRAS SNPs may increase KRAS transcription and KRAS levels. SNPs of KRAS 3'UTR can affect carcinoma risk and prognosis. Materials &methods: The rs8720 and rs7960917 in KRAS 3'UTR for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) risk and survival were investigated in a case-control study. Association between SNPs and CRC risk, survival analysis were analyzed by an unconditional logistic regression model, log-rank test, Kaplan-Meier estimation, Cox regression model and one-way analysis of variance. Results &conclusion: The genotype CT of rs8720 was sign...
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
This study profiled differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) to predict LSCC overall survival (OS) using The Cancer Genome Atlas data. Materials &methods: The RNA-seq and clinical dataset of 475 LSCC patients was retrieved from The Cancer Genome Atlas database and statistically analyzed. Results: There were 67 upregulated and 32 downregulated lncRNAs in LSCCs and 12 lncRNAs associated with OS. The seven-lncRNA signature was associated with poor OS and RP11-150O12.6 and CTA-384D8.35 were associated with better OS (p
Source: Future Medicine: Biomarkers in Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Biomark Med Source Type: research
In this study, the obtained IC50 concentration of 51.25 μg/mL exhibits significant anticancer activity against A549 cells than other tested concentrations because of the release of zinc ions, which induce the cell apoptosis. Furthermore, studies on cell cycle validate that ZnO NPs arrest the cell cycle at the sub-G1 phase of A549 cells. These results suggest the utility of phytogenic ZnO NPs for various biomedical applications.Graphical abstract
Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research
Authors: Demers AA, Brenner DR, Smith L, Shaw A Abstract Examining incidence trends of all cancers combined in order to understand cancer trends can be misleading, as patterns can vary across individual cancer types. This paper highlights findings on trends over time from Canadian Cancer Statistics 2019, as measured by the annual percent change (APC) of age-standardized incidence rates. Among the results were a recent increase in thyroid cancer in males (APC: 6.4%, 1997-2015), as well as decreases in prostate cancer (APC: -9.1%, 2011-2015) and cervical cancer (APC: -3.3%, 2010-2015). PMID: 31729314 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Juan Zhen, Haitao Yu, Honglei Ji, Lu Cai, Jiyan Leng, Bradley B. KellerAbstractDoxorubicin (DOX) induced cardiotoxicity is a life-threatening side effect of chemotherapy and decreased cardiac function can present years after treatment. Despite the investigation of a broad range of pharmacologic interventions, to date the only drug shown to reduce DOX-related cardiotoxicity in preclinical studies and limited clinical trials is the iron chelating agent, dexrazoxane (DRZ), although the mechanisms responsible for DRZ mediated protection from DOX...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Abstract Maize is an important staple crop for the majority of the population in Uganda. However, in tropical and subtropical climates, maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins, a group of cancer-causing and immuno-suppressive mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus section Flavi fungi. In Uganda, there is limited knowledge about the causal agents of aflatoxin contamination. The current study determined both the aflatoxin levels in pre-harvest maize across Uganda and the structures of communities of aflatoxin-producing fungi associated with the maize. A total of 256 pre-harvest maize samples were collected from...
Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: Int J Food Microbiol Source Type: research
Mosaic-variegated aneuploidy (MVA) syndrome is a rare childhood disorder characterized by biallelic BUBR1, CEP57, or TRIP13 aberrations; increased chromosome missegregation; and a broad spectrum of clinical features, including various cancers, congenital defects, and progeroid pathologies. To investigate the mechanisms underlying this disorder and its phenotypic heterogeneity, we mimicked the BUBR1L1012P mutation in mice (BubR1L1002P) and combined it with 2 other MVA variants, BUBR1X753 and BUBR1H, generating a truncated protein and low amounts of wild-type protein, respectively. Whereas BubR1X753/L1002P and BubR1H/X753 mi...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Currently, an effective targeted therapy for pancreatitis is lacking. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a heritable, autosomal-dominant disorder with recurrent acute pancreatitis (AP) progressing to chronic pancreatitis (CP) and a markedly increased risk of pancreatic cancer. In 1996, mutations in PRSS1 were linked to the development of HP. Here, we developed a mouse model by inserting a full-length human PRSS1R122H gene, the most commonly mutated gene in human HP, into mice. Expression of PRSS1R122H protein in the pancreas markedly increased stress signaling pathways and exacerbated AP. After the attack of AP, all PRSS1R122...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 November 2019Source: European Polymer JournalAuthor(s): Samson O. Aisida, Paul A. Akpa, Ishaq Ahmad, Ting-kai Zhao, M. Maaza, Fabian I. EzemaAbstractCancer cells are typified by proliferating mass of cells that grow faster than other smaller cell tissues within the body. Efforts to combat this effect through chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy and surgery are still challenging. Magnetic Iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO-NPs) encapsulated with biopolymers as a local drug delivery system with the control via an external magnetic field has been widely used as a drug delivery system in c...
Source: European Polymer Journal - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
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