Evaluating the Effects of Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Strategies, and Negative Reinforcement on Problem Behavior and Academic Performance: an Experimental Analysis

AbstractThe prevalence of students with behavioral problems who also have learning problems has been reported to be as high as 50% (Glassberg et al.Behavioral Disorders, 25, 9 –21,1999). In the current study, we progressively evaluated the effects of positive reinforcement, instructional strategies, and, if needed, negative reinforcement on both academic performance (i.e., on-task academic behavior, task accuracy, reading fluency) and problem behavior with two boys who displayed a combination of behavioral and learning problems at school. A three-phase analysis was conducted within a combination multielement and reversal design. Phase 1 evaluated the effects of contingent positive reinforcement. Phase 2 evaluated the combined effects of positive reinforcement and instructional strategies. Phase 3, conducted for one participant, evaluated the inclusion of contingent negative reinforcement. Data were collected using interval and permanent product recording systems, with IOA averaging 97% across both participants. For one participant, contingent positive reinforcement with an instructional strategy improved task accuracy and fluency, and decreased problem behavior. For the second participant, contingent negative reinforcement with an instructional strategy decreased problem behavior and improved on-task academic behavior and task accuracy. Results showed that highly individualistic treatment packages can be developed if based on experimental analyses of both reinforcement ...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research

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Authors: Berenbaum F, Walker C Abstract Globally, osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent arthritic condition in those aged over 60 years. OA has a high impact on patient disability and is associated with a significant economic burden. Pain is the most common first sign of disease and the leading cause of disability. Data demonstrating the increasing global prevalence of OA, together with a greater understanding of the burden of the disease, have led to a reassessment of the seriousness of OA and calls for the designation of OA as a serious disease in line with the diseases impact on comorbidity, disability,...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fracture and the most challenging. Although appropriately managing acute scaphoid waist fractures is a priority, it also is of primary importance to make a diagnosis acutely. Scaphoid waist fractures can occur with low-energy trauma and lead to mild symptoms. A tendency to minimize symptoms and low level of initial disability lead to delay in diagnosis. Displaced scaphoid fractures require operative intervention uniformly. Although nondisplaced fractures can heal with nonoperative treatment, management of these injuries is affected by patient demands. In high-level athletes, op...
Source: Clinics in Sports Medicine - Category: Sports Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
[Premium Times] The Nigerian Red Cross Society said on Thursday that it would train 100 persons including people with disabilities in various communities in First Aid in Kaduna State.
Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine - Category: African Health Source Type: news
Authors: Cao P, Li Y, Tang Y, Ding C, Hunter DJ Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of pain, loss of function and disability in the elderly, with the knee being the most impactful joint affected. Currently, there is still no 'cure' in OA treatment.Areas covered: The authors review the current and emerging therapies for knee OA including traditional OA medications (oral and topical NSAIDs, acetaminophen, and opioids) and emerging treatments including disease-modifying OA drugs. The failures of agents that have been through clinical trials are also summarized. Furthermore, the authors prov...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Publication date: May 2020Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities, Volume 100Author(s): David Murphy
Source: Research in Developmental Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index Short Form (WOMAC-SF) for the assessment of musculoskeletal disorders. We evaluated whether WOMAC-SF correlated with the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 12 (WHODAS-12) and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires for assessing health-outcomes in Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the Namgaram-2 cohort. WOMAC, WOMAC-SF, WHODAS-12, and Kaigo-Yobo questionnaires were administered to patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including radiology-confirmed knee osteoarthrit...
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research
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Source: Hand Surgery - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Plast Reconstr Surg Source Type: research
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Economics of Injury and Safety, PTSD, Injury Outcomes Source Type: news
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Source: Disabled World - Category: Disability Tags: Disability Apps Source Type: news
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