Have Cells Harboring the HIV Reservoir Been Immunoedited?

Immunoediting is a well-established concept in oncology, describing the processes by which tumors are selected for resistance to immune-mediated elimination. The recent emergence of immunotherapies, such as checkpoint inhibitors, as pillars of cancer therapy has intensifed interest in immunoediting as a constraint limiting the efficacy of these therapies. Immunoediting manifests at a number of levels for different cancers, for example through the establishment of immunosuppressive microenvironments within solid tumors. Of particular interest to the current review, selection also occurs at the cellular level; and recent studies have revealed novel mechanisms by which tumor cells acquire intrinsic resistance to immune recognition and elimination. While the selection of escape mutations in viral epitopes by HIV-specific T-cells, which is a hallmark of chronic HIV infection, can be considered a form of immunoediting, few studies have considered the possibility that HIV-infected cells themselves may parallel tumors in having differential intrinsic susceptibilities to immune-mediated elimination. Such selection, on the level of an infected cell may not play a significant role in untreated HIV, where infection is propagated by high levels of cell-free virus produced by cells that quickly succumb to viral cytopathicity. However, it may play an unappreciated role in individuals treated with effective antiretroviral therapy where viral replication is abrogated. In this context an &lsqu...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 12 September 2019Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical AssociationAuthor(s): Chun-Nan Kuo, Yu-Ming Liao, Li-Na Kuo, Hui-Ju Tsai, Wei-Chiao Chang, Yun YenCancer is the leading cause of death in Taiwan, and the overall incidence rate has gradually increased. The four most common cancers in Taiwan are colorectal, lung, breast and liver cancers. With the rise in incidence, the clinical use and costs of all anticancer drugs have steadily increased. The costs of novel therapeutics, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapy were accounted almost two-third of all antineoplastic agents in Tai...
Source: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionH5B14-based ADCs targeting the RON PSI domain are superior in inducing RON internalization, leading to robust drug delivery and overall inhibition and eradication of tumors in multiple xenograft models. These findings warrant H5B14-based ADCs for clinical trials in the future.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Pharmacological Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Thymosin alpha1 (Tα1), an endogenous peptide first isolated from the thymic tissue in the mid-sixties, has gained considerable attention for its immunostimulatory activity that led to its application to diverse pathological conditions, including cancer. Studies in animal models and human patients have shown promising results in different types of malignancies, especially when Tα1 was used in combination with other chemo- and immune therapies. For this reason, the advancements in our knowledge on the adjuvant role of Tα1 have moved in parallel with the development of novel cancer therapies in a way that T&...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Herein, a programmable antitumor strategy that combines artificial engineered natural killer cells with the antiheat endurance of DNAzyme as a powerful strategy for immuno ‐improving the therapeutic efficiency of photothermal therapy is reported. AbstractAlthough photothermal therapy (PTT) is preclinically applied in solid tumor treatment, incomplete tumor removal of PTT and heat endurance of tumor cells induces significant tumor relapse after treatment, therefore lowering the therapeutic efficiency of PTT. Herein, a programmable therapeutic strategy that integrates photothermal therapeutic agents (PTAs), DNAzymes, and a...
Source: Small - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: A growing number of oncology inpatients are being discharged to SAR, but two thirds do not receive additional cancer therapy at any point, including a substantial fraction who are readmitted or deceased within 1 month. These data can help guide decision making and hospital discharge planning that aligns with patients' goals of care. More clinical data are needed to predict who is most likely to benefit from SAR and proceed to further cancer therapy. PMID: 31465251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: JOP - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: J Oncol Pract Source Type: research
Herein, a programmable antitumor strategy that combines artificial engineered natural killer cells with the antiheat endurance of DNAzyme as a powerful strategy for immuno ‐improving the therapeutic efficiency of photothermal therapy is reported. AbstractAlthough photothermal therapy (PTT) is preclinically applied in solid tumor treatment, incomplete tumor removal of PTT and heat endurance of tumor cells induces significant tumor relapse after treatment, therefore lowering the therapeutic efficiency of PTT. Herein, a programmable therapeutic strategy that integrates photothermal therapeutic agents (PTAs), DNAzymes, and a...
Source: Small - Category: Nanotechnology Authors: Tags: Full Paper Source Type: research
Immunotherapy, Ahead of Print.
Source: Immunotherapy - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Dharambir Kashyap, Hardeep Singh Tuli, Mukerrem Betul Yerer, Ajay Sharma, Katrin Sak, Saumya Srivastava, Anjana Pandey, Vivek Kumar Garg, Gautam Sethi, Anupam BishayeeAbstractApplication of natural product-based nanoformulations for the treatment of different human diseases, such as cancer, is an emerging field. The conventional cancer therapeutic modalities, including surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy has limited achievements. A larger number of drawbacks are associated with these therapies, including damage to p...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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