Coping with Risk: Negative Shocks, Transactional Sex, and the Limitations of Conditional Cash Transfers
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2019Source: Journal of Health EconomicsAuthor(s): Erick Gong, Damien de Walque, William H. DowAbstractTransactional sex is an important risk-coping mechanism and a leading contributor to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. We use data from a conditional cash transfer (CCT) experiment in rural Tanzania designed to incentivize safer sexual behavior by conditioning transfers on testing negative for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For women, we find that negative shocks measured by food insecurity lead to a 36% increase in STIs and increases in self-reported risky sexual behavior. We find no significant effects of negative shocks on either STIs or self-reported sexual behavior for men. This CCT design did not appear to mitigate the behavioral response to shocks that we document in women. We propose that this finding can be explained by binding credit constraints and the relatively infrequent timing of the CCTs. When women experience a negative shock, cash needs are immediate, while transfers linked to a CCT are paid out in a specific point in time. If women are unable to access credit during a shock, they may resort to transactional sex even if they face monetary incentives to do otherwise.
[WHO] Over the years, HIV control strategies and approaches in Zimbabwe have evolved to address the changes in the epidemic and according to new evidence. Due to this evolution, the country has ended up with many vertical sub-programs under the HIV program including Care and treatment, HIV Testing Services, Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC), Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) among others. Until now, each of these programs has had separate plann
[Global Fund] Lyon, France -In an unprecedented show of global solidarity, donors at the Global Fund's Sixth Replenishment Conference pledged US$14.02 billion for the next three years - the largest amount ever raised for a multilateral health organization, and the largest amount by the Global Fund. The funds will help save 16 million lives and end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria by 2030.
Purpose of review More than half of new HIV diagnoses occur in the Southern United States where the epidemic disproportionately affects persons of color. Although other areas of the country are seeing dramatic declines in the number of new cases, the progress in the South lags behind. This review will examine the reasons for that disparity. Many are unique to the South. Recent findings Despite advances in antiretroviral therapy for HIV, many in the South are not benefiting from these medications, at either a personal or public health level. The reasons are complex and include lack of access to healthcare, lower levels...
[WHO] The HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe has evolved over the years. The overall HIV prevalence for adults aged 15-49 has fallen to 14.0% in 2016, from 18.1% in 2005 (source: Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey). Over the years the Ministry of Health and Child Care (MOHCC) with the support of its partners has implemented multiple interventions including HIV Testing Services, Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision, Pre-Exposure prophylaxis for HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Elimination of Mother to Child Transmi
[Vanguard] Wife of the Oyo State Governor, Mrs Tamunominini Makinde, says she will scale up HIV/AIDS response to put an end to the epidemic in the nearest future.
Authors: Tang Q, Zhang X, Lu H Abstract Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), gonorrhea and syphilis are the major sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the world, which are the focus of epidemic prevention and control in China. The epidemiological trend analysis of STDs in Shanghai could reflect the epidemic situation of these diseases in high-income areas of China, providing a reference for how to control their epidemic. Although the overall incidence rate of infectious diseases levelled off after 2009, Shanghai still faces many new obstacles in the fight ...
[The Conversation Africa] Efforts to manage the HIV epidemic in much of sub-Saharan Africa need to specifically target sections of the population that are most vulnerable to HIV infection. Two such key populations include men who have sex with men and transgender women. But in many countries on the continent same sex relationships - and transgender identities - are criminalised.
[SAnews.gov.za] The use of innovation and technology has been punted as the key tool to end the scourge of HIV and Aids in the country at the 9th South African Aids Conference.
This study aims to review the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and suggest control measures.Recent FindingsDespite declines in new HIV diagnosis, bacterial STIs among MSM have dramatically risen since the late 1990s. This increase occurred concurrent with introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy, the advent of electronic mechanisms for meeting sex partners and population-level changes in sexual behavior, including decreased condom use. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is now further diminishing condom use, though its impact on STIs is uncertain. A plan ...
Conclusion and Recommendations: Consistent condom utilization among HIV clients on ART was low (55.8%). Place of residence and condom use initiation during sexual contact were significantly associated with consistent condom use. It is better to give more emphasis on health education and counseling service about consistent condom use for PLWHA who are on ART during follow-up especially for those who came from rural areas. PMID: 31007955 [PubMed]