Tics and Tourette Syndrome

PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of this article is to present current information on the phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidities, and pathophysiology of tic disorders and discuss therapy options. It is hoped that a greater understanding of each of these components will provide clinicians with the necessary information to deliver thoughtful and optimal care to affected individuals. RECENT FINDINGS Recent advances include the finding that Tourette syndrome is likely due to a combination of several different genes, both low-effect and larger-effect variants, plus environmental factors. Pathophysiologically, increasing evidence supports involvement of the cortical–basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuit; however, the primary location and neurotransmitter remain controversial. Behavioral therapy is first-line treatment, and pharmacotherapy is based on tic severity. Several newer therapeutic agents are under investigation (eg, valbenazine, deutetrabenazine, cannabinoids), and deep brain stimulation is a promising therapy. SUMMARY Tics, defined as sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movements or vocalizations, are essential components of Tourette syndrome. Although some tics may be mild, others can cause significant psychosocial, physical, and functional difficulties that affect daily activities. In addition to tics, most affected individuals have coexisting neuropsychological difficulties (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive dis...
Source: CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology - Category: Neurology Tags: REVIEW ARTICLES Source Type: research

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Authors: Moon JR, Lee CK, Hong SN, Im JP, Ye BD, Cha JM, Jung SA, Lee KM, Park DI, Jeen YT, Park YS, Cheon JH, Kim H, Seo B, Kim Y, Kim HJ, MOSAIK study group of the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) Abstract Background/Aims: Limited data are available regarding psychosocial distress at the time of diagnosis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We investigated the psychosocial burden and factors related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQL) among patients newly diagnosed with moderate-to-severe UC who were affiliated with the nationwide prospective cohort study. Methods: Within the ...
Source: Gut and Liver - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Gut Liver Source Type: research
The goal of this proposed initiative is to identify feasible approaches to telehealth-supplied suicide prevention practices, and how this consultation affects patient suicide-related outcomes that include intentional and non-intentional injuries and mortality, and suicide related-health utilization patterns.
Source: National Institute of Mental Health - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Source Type: news
Authors: Shoar S, Naderan M, Mahmoodzadeh H, Shoar N, Lotfi D Abstract Introduction: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) refers to an abnormal eating behavior which presents as evening hyperphagia consuming>25% calorie intake and/or nocturnal awaking with food ingestion which occurs ≥2 times per week. Although the syndrome has been described more than seven decades ago, the literature has been growing slowly on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Areas covered: The proposed treatment options for NES are all at a case-study level. Moreover, our understanding of its etiology, comorbidities, and diagnosis is still p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
Authors: Hosoda T, Uehara Y, Naito T Abstract Patients with HIV infection represent a high-risk group for medication overdose because of the high frequency of complicating psychiatric disorders. Raltegravir is well-known for its low frequency of adverse effects. We herein report a 42-year-old Japanese man with HIV infection who was hospitalized 6 hours after overdosing with 24,000 mg of raltegravir in a suicide attempt. No serious adverse events occurred, although the plasma concentration of raltegravir at 18 hours after the overdose was 79,871.1 ng/mL. Raltegravir may be well-indicated for HIV patients at risk of ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Kim J, Kim SR, Lee H, Nam DH Abstract Objectives: Acupuncture is often used for relieving symptoms of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Our aim is to ascertain whether verum acupuncture is more effective than sham acupuncture in FMS. Methods: We collected RCTs to investigate the effects of verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture on pain, sleep quality, fatigue, and general status in FMS patients. The databases used for data retrieval were PubMed, Central Cochrane, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CNKI, VIP, OASIS, KoreaMed, and RISS. Selection/exclusion from the retrieved records was performed according to prespecified cri...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
In conclusion, this study determined that the anti-depression effect of moxibustion involves improved Trp transport and metabolism. The therapeutic duration benefits antidepressant effects, but the complex influence of the therapeutic extent on moxibustion efficacy requires further studies. PMID: 31534466 [PubMed]
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
This study aimed to examine the effects of warm steam inhalation before bedtime on subsequent sleep quality. The participants included 17 adult men with mild sleep difficulties and anxiety. All experiments were conducted in the participants' homes. The participants were instructed to wear a warm steam-generating mask or sham mask over the nose and mouth for 15 minutes immediately before habitual bedtime and were then allowed to sleep until their habitual waking time. The functional mask provided approximately 600 mg of steam for 10 minutes and maintained an interior temperature of 38-40°C for 15&th...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research
Abstract Several studies suggested that migraine attack onset shows a circadian variation; however, there has not been an overview and synthesis of these findings. A PubMed search with keywords "migraine" AND "circadian" resulted in ten studies directly investigating this topic. Results of these studies mostly show that migraine attacks follow a monophasic 24-hour cyclic pattern with an early morning or late night peak while other studies reported an afternoon peak and also a biphasic 24-hour cycle of attacks. The identified studies showed methodological variation including sample size, inclusi...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 57, Issue 4Author(s):
Source: American Journal of Preventive Medicine - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2019Source: The American Journal of SurgeryAuthor(s): Caitlin Robinson, Ryan Lawless, Ben L. Zarzaur, Lava Timsina, David V. Feliciano, Jamie J. ColemanAbstractIntroductionBurnout and depression is higher in trauma surgeons as compared to surgeons in other specialties. Clinical practice for many acute care surgeons (ACS) includes in-house call (IHC). The goal of this study was to quantitate physiologic stress among ACS who take IHC.MethodsACS with IHC responsibilities from two Level I trauma centers were studied. Participants wore a fitness and heart rate variability (HRV) de...
Source: The American Journal of Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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