DNA Damage and Associated DNA Repair Defects in Disease and Premature Aging

Genetic information is constantly being attacked by intrinsic and extrinsic damaging agents, such as reactive oxygen species, atmospheric radiation, environmental chemicals, and chemotherapeutics. If DNA modifications persist, they can adversely affect the polymerization of DNA or RNA, leading to replication fork collapse or transcription arrest, or can serve as mutagenic templates during nucleic acid synthesis reactions. To combat the deleterious consequences of DNA damage, organisms have developed complex repair networks that remove chemical modifications or aberrant base arrangements and restore the genome to its original state.
Source: The American Journal of Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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ConclusionsPRDR radiation therapy with capecitabine were well tolerated and effective method for treating patients with recurrent breast cancer. Prospective studies are necessary to compare side effects and efficacy with conventional dose rate re-irradiation, as well as, to evaluate the potential role for capecitabine in the recurrent setting.
Source: Practical Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, a series of porous mineralized collagen/PCL scaffolds with different pore features were fabricated via freeze-drying and applied in a Sprague Dawley rat cranial bone calvarial defect model. The pore size for four groups increased from 10–45 μm to 40–130 μm. As scaffold porosity increased, the compressive strength decreased from 2.09 ± 0.12 MPa to 0.51 ± 0.04 MPa. The micro-computed tomography three-dimensional reconstruction images showed that as pore size and porosity increased, the amount of new bone formation had a maximum in group 3 (pore size: 20–100...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
There is no doubt that those writing to this blog thread are " Speaking Up " here but to attempt to meet the goal of the preservation of patient dignity within the medical system, it is necessary for your voices to be heard by your physician and office or clinic staff, your hospital, the boards of healthcare certification and the government.  And you need to gather others who have been, are or will be patients to join in the vocalization of the needed repair and improvement of the medical system.Yes, feel free to " Speak Up " here but this blog thread is only the beginning, a place to ventilate, di...
Source: Bioethics Discussion Blog - Category: Medical Ethics Source Type: blogs
New developments in oral healthcare could see the dentist's drill consigned to history, after experts at King's College, London found a drug to prompt teeth to repair themselves.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Authors: Yu H, Yamashita S Abstract Pulse radiolysis was conducted to investigate several fundamental reactions of a natural flavonoid, rutin, and its glycosylated form (αG-rutin) as a basis for their radiation protection properties; the reactions with •OH (radical scavenging) and dGMP radical, dGMP• (chemical repair), which was used as a model of initial and not yet stabilized damage on DNA. Three absorption peaks were commonly seen in the reactions of the flavonoids with •OH, showing that their reactive site is the common structure, ie aglycone. One among the three peaks was attributed to the...
Source: Free Radical Research - Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to review current data on the contribution of wrist arthroscopy to the management of intra-articular distal radius fractures (IADRFs). The literature published over the last 10 years was reviewed by searching databases with the key indexing terms ‘distal radius fracture’, ‘articular’, and ‘wrist arthroscopy’. The information in the 21 articles thus retrieved was used to answer the following questions: (i) Can arthroscopy improve the reduction of IADRFs? (ii) How does arthroscopy contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of concomitant ligament injuries? an...
Source: Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: MitraClip procedure improved life-years and quality of life in patients at high surgical risk and it was also a cost-effective treatment option. PMID: 31516049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research
ConclusionFurther studies should be conducted to provide new insights about survival of colorectal carcinoma in Lynch syndrome, as well as the therapeutic alternatives for this neoplasia.ResumoIntroduçãoO carcinoma colorretal é a terceira neoplasia mais prevalente no mundo, bem como a segunda causa de morte por câncer. A maioria destas neoplasias são esporádicas, devidas a mutações somáticas, mas cerca de 15% são hereditárias como a síndrome de Lynch ou Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC). Apesar de ser a mesma neoplasia, esta ...
Source: Journal of Coloproctology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionIn neonates with ductus-dependent pulmonary circulation PDA stenting can be introduced as safe first possible option to augment pulmonary blood flow with good outcome and suitable preparation for second stage palliation. Unattainable PDA stenting or failure or inadequacy occurred in (30%) of cases where surgical option remains a standard option.
Source: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 September 2019Source: The Annals of Thoracic SurgeryAuthor(s): Matthew S. Yong, Igor E. Konstantinov
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery - Category: Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery Source Type: research
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