Chemotherapy, Still an Option in the Twenty-First Century in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer?

AbstractSubstantial improvements have been made in the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer over the last two decades. Median overall survival (OS) of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has been constantly increased and the most recent first-line studies exceeded the 30-month median overall survival. The standard first-line regimen for mCRC is a combination of chemotherapy plus a biological agent either targeting the main angiogenic growth factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via Bevacizumab or by antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGRF) via Panitumumab or Cetuximab. Recent improvements have been shown in the efficacy of the biological agent by stratifying these agents according to the primary tumor location. In this context EGFR-inhibitors showed improved OS when used first-line in tumors derived from the left-sided colon or rectum, while tumor sidedness was not predictive for anti-VEGF-antibodies. Furthermore, the biological activity of anti-EGFR antibodies is restricted to tumors with a rat sarcoma virus (RAS)-wild-type genotype but not RAS-mutated tumors. The RAS-mutation status is not predictive for VEGF-inhibitors. Recent developments in the molecular characterisation of tumor cells led to the development of specific so called targeted therapies in colorectal cancer.
Source: CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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Abstract KRAS is a member of the murine sarcoma virus oncogene-RAS gene family. It plays an important role in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of tumors during tumor cell growth and angiogenesis. KRAS is the most commonly mutated oncogene in human cancers, such as the pancreatic cancers, colon cancers, and lung cancers. Detection of KRAS gene mutation is an important indicator for tracking the status of oncogenes, illuminating the developmental prognosis of various cancers, and the efficacy of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. However, the efficacy of different patients in clinical treatment is not the same. S...
Source: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Curr Top Med Chem Source Type: research
ConclusionIFN-I induces STAT3 activation to activateGzmb expression to enhance CTL effector function to suppress tumor development. Human colorectal carcinoma may use down-regulation of IFNAR1 on CTLs to suppress CTL effector function to evade host cancer immunosurveillance.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Michal Yalon1†, Amos Toren1,2†, Dina Jabarin2, Edna Fadida3, Shlomi Constantini3 and Ruty Mehrian-Shai1* 1Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Edmond and Lilly Safra Children's Hospital and Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat Gan, Israel 2The Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel 3Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Dana Children's Hospital, Tel-Aviv-Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Pediatric brain tumors are the most common solid tumor type and the leading cause of cancer-related death in children. The immune system plays an important r...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Ginevra Doglioni1,2†, Sweta Parik1,2† and Sarah-Maria Fendt1,2* 1Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, VIB-KU Leuven Center for Cancer Biology, VIB, Leuven, Belgium 2Laboratory of Cellular Metabolism and Metabolic Regulation, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven and Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium Metastasis formation is the leading cause of death in cancer patients. Thus, understanding and targeting this process is an unmet need. Crucial steps during the establishment of metastases include the (pre)metastatic niche formation. This process relies on the interaction of th...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of international guidelines and ethical standards with written informed consent from all subjects. All subjects gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of Kunming General Hospital, China. miRNAs, Plasmids, Transfection, and Irradiation To predict miRNAs with potential binding sites in the 3′UTR of PHLDA2, Targetscan (http://www.targetscan.org/), miRanda (http://www.microrna.org/), and Diana database (http://diana.cslab,ece.nura.gr/) algorithms were u...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, this study suggests that targeted therapy based on NGS test may be a good choice for improving the care of patients with refractory solid tumors. PMID: 30448735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Translational Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Transl Oncol Source Type: research
AW, Horenblas S, Gietema JA, van Leeuwen FE, Schaapveld M Abstract Purpose Testicular cancer (TC) treatment increases risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs). It is unknown whether changes in TC treatment over time have affected SMN risk. Methods Solid SMN risk was evaluated in a multicenter cohort comprising 5,848 1-year survivors treated for TC before age 50 years between 1976 and 2007. SMN incidence was compared with cancer incidence in the general population. Treatment-specific risks were assessed using multivariable regression in a case-cohort design. Results After a median follow-up of 14.1 years, 350...
Source: Clinical Lung Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: J Clin Oncol Source Type: research
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