Impaired Monocyte to Macrophage Transition Implicated in Cardiovascular Disease

The innate immune cells called macrophages are vitally important to the health and function of tissues. They help to coordinate the intricate dance of stem cells, somatic cells, and immune cells that produces tissue regrowth and tissue maintenance. They destroy errant cells and pathogens. They have a variety of other roles as well. But where do macrophages come from? While some macrophages are generated within tissues, it is generally the case that in damaged or diseased tissues, most macrophages were originally monocytes. Circulating monocytes in the bloodstream enter tissues in response to chemical cues and then transform into macrophages that set to work to try to aid in repair and regeneration. Monocytes themselves are generated by cell populations in the bone marrow that descend from hematopoietic stem cells. At any given time about half of the monocytes in the body reside in the spleen, acting as a reserve that can leap into action when required. Thus in any given situation of injury or disease in which the presence of macrophages would be beneficial, any process that prevents monocytes from arriving and transforming into macrophages will make things worse. Interestingly, it isn't always the case that more macrophages will improve the situation. Atherosclerosis, for example, is a condition in which fatty lesions that narrow and weaken blood vessels form because the macrophages responsible for repairing the problem become overwhelmed by cholesterol and die, adding...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Medicine, Biotech, Research Source Type: blogs

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Conclusions: Adipose expression of TBX1 is necessary, but not sufficient, to defend body temperature during cold via proper UCP1 expression. Adipose TBX1 expression was also required for proper insulin signaling in subcutaneous adipose as well as maintaining β-adrenergic sensitivity but overexpression of TBX1 was not sufficient to induce adipocyte beiging or prevent diet induced obesity. TBX1 expression is enriched in adipose stem cells in which it has contrasting effects on adipogenesis in mouse versus human cells. Collectively, these data demonstrate the importance of adipose TBX1 in the regulation of beige adipocyt...
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Adipocytokines are a predictive factor of peritoneal function and the duration of PD in patients undergoing PD. PMID: 32063216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
Authors: Matsui K, Mochida Y, Ishioka K, Moriya H, Hidaka S, Ohtake T, Kobayashi S PMID: 32063204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: For RCS, HRQOL in PD+HD patients was better than that in HD and comparable with that in PD patients, whereas the PCS, MCS, and KDCS HRQOL scores of PD+HD patients were comparable with those of HD and PD patients. PMID: 32063200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
Authors: Chionh CY, Clementi A, Poh CB, Finkelstein FO, Cruz DN Abstract Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Extracorporeal (EC) therapy, including ultrafiltration (UF) and haemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF) are potential therapeutic options in diuretic-resistant states. This systematic review assessed outcomes of PD and compared the effects of PD to EC. A comprehensive search of major databases from 1966 to 2017 for studies utilising PD (or PUF) in diuretic-resistant HF was conducted, excluding studies involving patients with end-stage kidn...
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Tension-free mesh repair is associated with low morbidity and low recurrence rates in PD patients. Timely management and close collaboration with renal physicians are essential to continue PD after repair. PMID: 32063146 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Peritoneal Dialysis International - Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Perit Dial Int Source Type: research
In this study, three major SGs, i.e., glucosides of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol, were synthesized and used as standards for measurement of their contents in rice bran (RB)-based fermented food (FBRA) utilizing Aspergillus oryzae and raw material (RM). The compounds were quantified using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that β-sitosteryl glucoside was most abundant among the analyzed glucosides in both samples, and the contents of each SG in FBRA decreased about 35% from those of RM. In contrast to SGs, the contents of ASGs in FBRA increased 1.5-f...
Source: Steroids - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
ConclusionsBased on these results, we suggest that DSS play a positive effective role in increasing DHA content by up-regulating iPLA2 and 15-LOX, resulting in ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation and finally ameliorating cognition deficits in APP/PS1 mice.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
GENERAL PURPOSE To review the nutrition-related recommendations presented in the 2019 European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, National Pressure Injury Advisory Panel, and Pan Pacific Pressure Injury Alliance Prevention and Treatment of Pressure Ulcers/Injuries: Clinical Practice Guideline with further discussion of nutrition for pressure injury management in the context of the recommendations. TARGET AUDIENCE This continuing education activity is intended for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES After participating in...
Source: Advances in Skin and Wound Care - Category: Dermatology Tags: CLINICAL MANAGEMENT EXTRA Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study is the first to characterize the coding transcriptome of PEG-fused PNAs, and identifies possible links between alterations of the extracellular matrix and suppression of the allorejection response. The results establish a molecular-basis to understand mechanisms underlying PEG-mediated immunosuppression.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Rattus norvegicus Source Type: research
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