Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy.

Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jul 25;: Authors: Lakatos M, Baranyi M, Erőss L, Nardai S, Török TL, Sperlágh B, Vizi ES Abstract The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA induced by ischemic conditions. This finding indicated that the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), working in reverse in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, fails to trigger the influx of Ca2+ in exchange for Na+ and fails to counteract ischemia by further increasing the intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, significantly reduced the cytoplasmic resting release rate of catecholamines under ischemic conditions and under conditions where Ca2+ was removed. Hypothermia inhibited the excessive release of [3H]DA in respon...
Source: Neurochemical Research - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

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Rationale: Shivering is an important physiological response of the body that causes muscle tremors to maintain temperature homeostasis. Traumatic brain injuries that affect the hypothalamus cause hypothermia, and physical removal of suprasellar tumors causes thermoregulation imbalance. However, no study has reported shivering due to ischemic stroke. Patient concerns: A 58-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency department to evaluate severe stenosis of the basilar artery. While waiting for further examination, he exhibited coarse shivering and severe dysarthria. Diagnosis: Brain computed tomography angi...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Clinical Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The study may present the possibility that organ temperature-induced alterations in gene expression are organ specific in homeotherms and the possibility that organ temperature-induced alterations in gene expression are transcriptionally regulated in some organs of homeotherms. PMID: 32972335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research
Conditions:   Stroke;   Neuroprotection;   Hypothermia Intervention:   Other: Regional Hypothermia Sponsor:   Capital Medical University Not yet recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Abstract Cerebral edema is a pathological hallmark of various central nervous system (CNS) insults, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and excitotoxic injury such as stroke. Due to the rigidity of the skull, edema-induced increase of intracranial fluid significantly complicates severe CNS injuries by raising intracranial pressure and compromising perfusion. Mortality due to cerebral edema is high. With mortality rates up to 80% in severe cases of stroke, it is the leading cause of death within the first week. Similarly, cerebral edema is devastating for patients of TBI, accounting for up to 50% mortality. Curr...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
AbstractEarly reperfusion is increasingly prioritized in ischemic stroke care, but outcomes remain suboptimal. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find neuroprotective approaches that can be combined with reperfusion to maximize efficacy. Here, the neuroprotective mechanisms behind therapeutic hypothermia were evaluated in a monkey model of ischemic stroke. Focal ischemia was induced in adult rhesus monkeys by placing autologous clots in the middle cerebral artery. Monkeys were treated with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) alone or t-PA plus selective intra-arterial cooling (SI-AC). Serial MRI scans and functional def...
Source: Neurotherapeutics - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread exponentially worldwide. In Brazil, the number of infected people diagnosed has been increasing and, as in other countries, it has been associated with a high risk of contamination in healthcare teams. For healthcare professionals, the full use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is mandatory, such as wearing surgical or filtering facepiece class 2 (FFP2) masks, waterproof aprons, gloves, and goggles, in addition to training in care processes. A reduction in the number of face-to-face visits an...
Source: Clinics - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
In this study, 5% of VF arrest was due to PE: V fib is initial rhythm in PE in 3 of 60 cases. On the other hand, if the presenting rhythm is PEA, then pulmonary embolism is likely.  When there is VF in PE, it is not the initial rhythm, but occurs after prolonged PEA renders the myocardium ischemic.--Another study by Courtney and Kline found that, of cases of arrest that had autopsy and found that a presenting rhythm of VF/VT had an odds ratio of 0.02 for massive pulmonary embolism as the etiology, vs 41.9 for PEA.    ===================================MY Comment by KEN ...
Source: Dr. Smith's ECG Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Source Type: blogs
Conclusions: High-quality randomized evidence indicates that therapeutic hypothermia is associated with higher mortality and no difference in good neurologic outcome compared with normothermia in critically ill patients. Although there still might be a possibility that therapeutic hypothermia is beneficial in a specific setting, routine application of therapeutic hypothermia would better be avoided outside the settings indicated by international guidelines (adult cardiac arrest and hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy of newborns).
Source: Critical Care Medicine - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research
Authors: Link TW, Santillan A, Patsalides A Abstract Mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion has been shown to significantly improve outcomes. However, despite efficient rates of recanalization (60-90%), the rates of functional independence remain suboptimal (14-58%), most likely due to pathways of cell death in the brain that have already committed despite successful reperfusion. Pharmacologic neuroprotection provides a potential means of preventing this inevitable damage through targeting excitotoxicity, reactive oxygen species, cellular apoptosis, and inflammation. Numerou...
Source: Interventional Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Interv Neuroradiol Source Type: research
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