Roles of chitinase 3-like 1 in the development of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases

Publication date: Available online 26 July 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): In Jun Yeo, Chong-Kil Lee, Sang-Bae Han, Jaesuk Yun, Jin Tae HongAbstractChitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) is a secreted glycoprotein that mediates inflammation, macrophage polarization, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. The expression of CHI3L1 is strongly increased by various inflammatory and immunological conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and several cancers. However, its physiological and pathophysiological roles in the development of cancer and neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases remain unclear. Several studies have reported that CHI3L1 promotes cancer proliferation, inflammatory cytokine production, and microglial activation, and that multiple receptors, such as advanced glycation end product, syndecan-1/αVβ3, and IL-13Rα2, are involved. In addition, the pro-inflammatory action of CHI3L1 may be mediated via the protein kinase B and phosphoinositide-3 signaling pathways and responses to various pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ. Therefore, CHI3L1 could contribute to a vast array of inflammatory diseases. In this article, we review recent findings regarding the roles of CHI3L1 and suggest therapeutic approaches targeting CHI3L1 in the development of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases.
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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