What Causes Hypercalcemia?
Discussion Calcium homeostasis is regulated by mechanisms involving the absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, bone deposition and resorption, and renal excretion. To review Vitamin D homeostasis click here. Serum calcium is found in three forms: free (47%), protein bound (43%) and diffusable calcium complexes (10%). The protein binding proteins are albumin (80%) and globulin (20%). The free calcium is the most important biologically. Acidosis also increases free calcium and alkalosis decreases free calcium. Problems associated with hypercalcemia include nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, constipation, polyuria, dehydration, mental status changes and coma. Learning Point The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia includes: Hyperparathyroidism Primary Familial isolated Familial hypercalciuria hypercalcemia MEN I and II Vitamin D excess Chronic granulomatous disorders Drugs Catecholamines Lithium Teriparatide Theophylline Thiazides Vitamin A excess Malignancies Ectopic PTH-producing tumors Pheochromocytoma Other Acromegaly Aluminum excess Adrenal insufficiency Hypophosphatemia Hyperthyroidism Immobilization Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia Milk alkali syndrome Parenteral nutrition Renal failure Williams syndrome Questions for Further Discussion 1. What are treatments for hypercalcemia? 2. What is included in the differential diagnosis of hypocalcemia? Related Cases Disease: Calcium | Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Symptom/Presentation: Abnormal Laboratory Test S...
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: Journal of Herbal MedicineAuthor(s): Sandra L. Gray, Brett R. LackeyAbstractPhytoestrogens may directly or indirectly affect the function of estrogen receptors. A method using human recombinant estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERα and ERβ) was adapted for pure isoflavone compounds: glycitein, glycitin, biochanin A and formononetin; and extracts from chaste tree, Queen-Anne’s lace, Cyperus rhizome, dong quai, flaxseed, black cohosh, Siberian ginseng, saw palmetto, hops, licorice, red clover and alfalfa. Estrogen binding equivalents (EBE) for extra...
Qi Liu, Dakui Luo, Qingguo Li, Ji Zhu, Xinxiang Li
ConclusionsWhen compared to other radioresistant histologies, HCC has inferior local control and pain relief after SRS. Whether HCC may benefit from further dose escalation or combined treatment with new therapies is an area of future research.
Researchers examined whether a higher Gleason score impacts the efficacy of androgen deprivation therapy.
A recent study inJAMA Oncology compared survival for various multi-modality approaches for treating aggressive prostate cancer.
The long-term results from an analysis of two phase II studies confirmed the role of osimertinib in the treatment of T790M mutation –positive advanced non–small-cell lung cancer.
In patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with anthracyclines plus trastuzumab, can adding lisinopril or carvedilol reduce the risk of cardiotoxicity?
A comparison of chemotherapy regimens plus anti-HER2 therapy in the neoadjuvant setting tested whether the addition of anthracyclines is necessary for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.
Having a baby temporarily increases the risk of breast cancer by about 80% compared to the risk in women who have never given birth, researchers behind a new study have concluded.Reuters Health Information
When it's unclear whether the potential benefit of breast cancer screening outweighs the possible harms, doctors should encourage women to make an informed decision based on their personal preferences, Canadian doctors recommend.Reuters Health Information
More News: Acromegaly | Addison's Disease | Adrenal Insufficiency | Albuterol | Bronchiolitis | Calcium | Cancer | Cancer & Oncology | Child Development | Children | Chronic Pain | Complementary Medicine | Constipation | Databases & Libraries | Emergency Medicine | Endocrinology | Forteo | Gastroenterology | Health | Health Management | Herbs | Hormones | Hospital Management | Hospitals | Hyperparathyroidism | Hyperthyroidism | Internet | Laboratory Medicine | Learning | Lithium | Magnesium | Men | Nutrition | Oral Cancer | Pain | Pain Management | Parenteral Nutrition | Pediatrics | Pheochromocytoma | Proair HFA | Radiography | Renal Failure | Skin | Sleep Disorders | Sleep Medicine | Study | Thyroid | Thyroid Cancer | Universities & Medical Training | Urology & Nephrology | Ventolin | Vitamins | Williams Syndrome