What Causes Hypercalcemia?

Discussion Calcium homeostasis is regulated by mechanisms involving the absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, bone deposition and resorption, and renal excretion. To review Vitamin D homeostasis click here. Serum calcium is found in three forms: free (47%), protein bound (43%) and diffusable calcium complexes (10%). The protein binding proteins are albumin (80%) and globulin (20%). The free calcium is the most important biologically. Acidosis also increases free calcium and alkalosis decreases free calcium. Problems associated with hypercalcemia include nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, constipation, polyuria, dehydration, mental status changes and coma. Learning Point The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia includes: Hyperparathyroidism Primary Familial isolated Familial hypercalciuria hypercalcemia MEN I and II Vitamin D excess Chronic granulomatous disorders Drugs Catecholamines Lithium Teriparatide Theophylline Thiazides Vitamin A excess Malignancies Ectopic PTH-producing tumors Pheochromocytoma Other Acromegaly Aluminum excess Adrenal insufficiency Hypophosphatemia Hyperthyroidism Immobilization Idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia Milk alkali syndrome Parenteral nutrition Renal failure Williams syndrome Questions for Further Discussion 1. What are treatments for hypercalcemia? 2. What is included in the differential diagnosis of hypocalcemia? Related Cases Disease: Calcium | Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Symptom/Presentation: Abnormal Laboratory Test S...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news

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Conclusion: The tools for analysis of pixel values were useful in the quantification of bone gain in patients submitted to intralesional corticosteroid therapy, and these tools should be f urther explored and used during treatment as auxiliary methods in the evaluation of its efficacy.RESUMO Introdu ção: A lesão central de células gigantes (LCCG) é uma alteração óssea de etiologia desconhecida e comportamento clínico variado, que pode acometer os maxilares. Objetivo: Analisar radiografias provenientes de pacientes portadores de LCCG submetidos à corticot...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Source: NPR Health and Science - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Source Type: news
Officially it ’s a ‘unique holiday hotel for cancer patients and those with life-threatening illnesses’, according to the sign outside the Twenties green-shuttered building in Bournemouth.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Sarah Brookes, 41, a mother of two from Bradford, West Yorkshire, would like commercial sunbeds to be banned outright.
Source: the Mail online | Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Conclusion: It was concluded that the ultrasonic activation of the NaOCl 1% + EDTA 17% irrigation solution provides greater penetration of the endodontic cement in lateral root canals.RESUMO Objetivo: Este trabalho analisou a influ ência da ativação ultrassônica de soluções irrigadoras na penetração do cimento obturador em canais laterais. Métodos: Cinquenta molares superiores (raiz palatina) foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos experimentais (n=10): Grupo 1 (EDTA 17% + agitação manual por 5 minutos), Gru po 2 (EDTA 17% + ativa&ccedi...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Objective: Chronic kidney disease is characterized by progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function. The impact of this disease on oral health also presents controversial results. The aim of the study was to determine oral health conditions and oral symptoms of patients with Chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: A cross-sectional study on a population with chronic renal failure was performed. Anamnesis and oral examination, decayed, miss and filled teeth (DMFT) index, community periodontal index, simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) and gingival index were conducted. Data were processed ...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
This report is of a 13-year-old male patient who presented with a swelling on the posterior mandibular region, on the left side of his face. Intraoral examination revealed lingual displacement of teeth 36 and 37. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological analyses confirmed the diagnosis of ameloblastoma (plexiform histological type). The patient was treated with curettage and peripheral osteotomy and a 5-year follow-up examination showed the area to have healed completely, with no evidence of recurrence. Consequently, although the clinical management of ameloblastoma is often based on invasive surgical approaches, l...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
ABSTRACT Dentigerous cyst, ranked the second most common developmental odontogenic cyst of the jaws after the radicular cyst, is a well-defined, unilocular radiolucent lesion without symptoms, frequently noted as an incidental finding in routine radiographs. The cystic lining is derived from epithelial remanants of the tooth-forming organ and the teeth most commonly affected are impacted mandibular third molars and permanent maxillary canines. While the dentigerous cyst is not uncommon, its development as a result of an impacted deciduous tooth is rare. The aim of this article was to make a brief literature review and repo...
Source: RGO - Revista Gaucha de Odontologia - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulation (BS) effect of the gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser by histopathology with an experimental osteoarthritis (OA) model in the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) of rabbits, in the early period. GaAlAs diode laser is used for pain reduction in TMJ disorders. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three equal groups: Control Group (CG), Study Group 1 (SG-1), and Study Group 2 (SG-2). Mono-iodoacetate (MIA) was administered to the right TMJs of all rabbits. The rabbits did not undergo any treatment for four weeks to ...
Source: Brazilian Oral Research - Category: Dentistry Source Type: research
ConclusionsAcupuncture can be considered an auxiliary treatment for chronic headache, reducing the intensity of pain, the number of crisis, the quantity of analgesics used, and improving the quality of life in patients with this painful condition.
Source: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies - Category: Complementary Medicine Source Type: research
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