Determinants of cognitive performance and decline in 20 diverse ethno-regional groups: A COSMIC collaboration cohort study
This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. Methods and findingsWe harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54 –105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2–15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = −0.1, SE = 0.01),APOE*4 carriage (B = −0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = −0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = −0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = −0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = −0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive perform...
Conclusion Swim training, a sport characterized by unique cardiac loading conditions, stimulates eccentric LV remodeling with the concomitant augmentation of systolic twist and diastolic relaxation. This volume-mediated cardiac remodeling appears to result in greater systolic susceptibility to acute afterload challenge. Further work is required to establish how training-induced changes in function translate to human performance and whether these are accompanied by physiologic trade-offs with relevance to common forms of heart disease.
Conclusion Our study provides novel evidence that EXE-induced antisenescence against metabolic distress in the hippocampus may be a key neuroprotective mechanism, preventing neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.
Conclusions The increase in HR rather than an increase in CBF or forearm venous volume was responsible for the decrease in SV during moderate-intensity exercise when Tsk was held at 38°C.
Conclusions After accounting for baseline PA, greater positive changes in leisure-time PA levels were associated with a more eccentric-type of LV remodeling pattern over 10 yr. The clinical implications of such findings remain to be determined.
Purpose Low-attenuation muscle (LAM) area at mid-thigh, a computed tomography (CT)–derived index of intramuscular lipids, is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that changes in LAM area in trunk muscles from a single abdominal scan could provide relevant information to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention without the use of a mid-thigh CT scan. Methods Cardiometabolic risk variables, including waist circumference, lipoprotein–lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and cardiorespiratory fitness, were assessed in a sample ...
Abstract Objective The present study was conducted with the objective of investigating the effectiveness of solution-focused group counseling (SFGC) on promoting the mental health of midwifery students. Methods The present study is an intervention-based study with a pretest, a post-test, and a control group. The statistical population included all of the midwifery students studying in the midwifery department of the Bam University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran, who filled out the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) in the screening phase. In the second phase, 40 individuals, having a low level of mental health based on ...
This study investigated whether periodontal treatment might improve glycemic control in patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and which modality offers most benefit.BMC Oral Health
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CONCLUSIONS: LL-37 concentrations were highest in patients with T2DM+CP when compared with controls. LL-37 was positively correlated with age. HNP 1-3 levels were increased in groups with DM when compared to the groups without periodontitis. The role of AMPs is vital in the immunoinflammatory response in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and DM. PMID: 31522161 [PubMed - in process]
CONCLUSION: Prevalence of severe periodontitis was 10.6%, a lower percentage than other epidemiological studies in Latin America; but still a high proportion of individuals, which would support the importance of preventive and treatment strategies for the country. PMID: 31522152 [PubMed - in process]
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