Antibiotics before liver transplants lead to better results

A UCLA-led research team has  found that giving mice antibiotics for 10 days prior to a liver transplant leads to better liver function after the surgery.After concluding the experiment mice, the scientists discovered data from liver transplants performed between October 2013 and August 2015 at the Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, revealing that the same phenomenon appears to hold true in humans. The statistics from human patients even demonstrated that the people who were in worse health prior to their surgeries but received pre-surgery antibiotics fared better after their transplants than the patients who were healthier prior to their surgeries but did not receive antibiotics.The researchers concluded that the antibiotics inhibited bacteria that causes inflammation, which in turn can lead to organ rejection. Specifically, they found that in both mice and humans, the treatment prior to a transplant reduced damage that could occur when blood flow is restored to the liver after a period of time without oxygen; and it reduced inflammation and cell damage while accelerating the removal of damaged cells. As a result, liver function was better than in the mice and human patients who did not receive antibiotics before a transplant.Humans carry trillions of bacteria, many of which are essential for health — aiding in food digestion, for example. But other bacteria are linked to inflammatory bowel disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes and even Parkinson...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news

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SummaryThe efficacy of bariatric surgery in achieving weight loss and preventing long ‐term comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and osteoarthritis is well established. Data regarding safety of bariatric surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is scarce. We attempted a systematic review and meta‐analysis to evaluate the complications following bariatric surgery in patients with IBD. The primary outcomes evaluated were wound infection, Clavien‐Dindo grade >  II complications and IBD exacerbation (within 1 year). Secondary outcomes evaluated included...
Source: Clinical Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we examined the effects of oxytocin on the Aβ-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity in mice. To investigate the effect of oxytocin on synaptic plasticity, we prepared acute hippocampal slices for extracellular recording and assessed long-term potentiation (LTP) with perfusion of the Aβ active fragment (Aβ25-35) in the absence and presence of oxytocin. We found that oxytocin reversed the impairment of LTP induced by Aβ25-35 perfusion in the mouse hippocampus. These effects were blocked by pretreatment with the selective oxytocin receptor antagonist L-368,899. Furthermore, the tr...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Abstract The intestinal microbial flora has risen to be one of the important etiological factors in the development of diseases like colorectal cancer, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, anxiety and Parkinson's. The emergence of the association between bacterial flora and lungs led to the discovery of the gut-lung axis. Dysbiosis of several species of colonic bacteria such as Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and transfer of these bacteria from gut to lungs via lymphatic and systemic circulation are associated with several respiratory diseases such as lung cancer, asthma, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, etc....
Source: The Biochemical Journal - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochem J Source Type: research
Abstract Emerging information suggests that gastrointestinal and systemic pathology states may affect expression and function of membrane transporters in the gastrointestinal tract. Altered status of the transporters could affect drug as well as endogenous compounds handling with subsequent clinical consequences. It seems that in some pathologies, e.g., liver or kidney failure, changes in the intestinal transporter function provide compensatory functions, eliminating substrates excreted by dysfunctional organs. A literature search was conducted on Ovid and Pubmed databases to select relevant in vitro, animal and h...
Source: Pharmacological Reports - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Pharmacol Rep Source Type: research
Abstract Both the GH/IGF-1 axis and the gut microbiota independently play an important role in host growth, metabolism, and intestinal homeostasis. Inversely, abnormalities in GH action and microbial dysbiosis (or a lack of diversity) in the gut have been implicated in restricted growth, metabolic disorders (such as chronic undernutrition, anorexia nervosa, obesity, and diabetes), and intestinal dysfunction (such as pediatric Crohn's disease, colonic polyps, and colon cancer). Over the last decade, studies have demonstrated that the microbial impact on growth may be mediated through the GH/IGF-1 axis, pointing tow...
Source: Growth Hormone and IGF Research - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Growth Horm IGF Res Source Type: research
"The pivotal relation between glucagon-like peptides,NFκB and inflammatory bowel disease". Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2020 Jun 08;: Authors: Azmy Nabeh O, Attallah MI, El-Gawhary NE Abstract Glucagon-like peptides (GLPs); GLP-1 and GLP-2, are released from intestinal enteroendocrine (L cells) in response to ingested nutrients. GLP-1 plays a crucial role in lowering blood glucose and controlling body weight, through stimulating the islet ß cells of pancreas to secret insulin, inhibiting gastric emptying, and reducing food ingestion. Therefore, GLP-1 receptor agonists are now used...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research
Abstract Progress in genomic analysis has resulted in the proposal that the intestinal microbiota is a crucial environmental factor in the development of multifactorial diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel diseases represented by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Dysregulated gut microbiome contributes to the pathogenesis of such disorders; however, there are few effective treatments for controlling only disease-mediating bacteria. Here, we review current knowledge about the intestinal microbiome in health and disease, and discuss a regulatory strategy using a par...
Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: World J Gastroenterol Source Type: research
Enteric neuronal degeneration, as seen in inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, and diabetes, can lead to gastrointestinal dysmotility. Pyroptosis is a novel form of programmed cell death but little is known about its role in enteric neuronal degeneration. We observed higher levels of cleaved caspase-1, a marker of pyroptosis, in myenteric ganglia of overweight and obese human subjects compared with normal-weight subjects. Western diet–fed (WD-fed) mice exhibited increased myenteric neuronal pyroptosis, delayed colonic transit, and impaired electric field stimulation–induced colonic relaxation responses. WD incr...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract We investigated the efficacy of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α antagonist infliximab on a measure of anhedonia amongst individuals with bipolar I/II depression (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02363738). Adults (ages 18-65) with bipolar I/II disorder currently experiencing a major depressive episode with a higher probability of inflammatory activity (i.e., meeting one or more of the following inflammatory/metabolic criteria: obesity and dyslipidemia/hypertension, daily cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, migraine, inflammatory bowel disease, and/or C-reactive protein level of ⩾5 mg/L) were enro...
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Brain Behav Immun Source Type: research
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