Theranostics Based on Liposome: Looking Back and Forward
AbstractLiposome is one of the oldest yet most successful nanomedicine platforms. Doxil ®, PEGylated liposome loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), was approved by the FDA in 1995 for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, and it was the first approval for nanomedicine. Since then, liposome-based therapeutics were approved for the treatment of various diseases and many clinical tr ials are underway. The success of the liposome-based therapeutics was due to following factors: (1) ease of synthesis, (2) biocompatibility, (3) the ability to load both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, and (4) long circulation property after application of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recently, mo re functionalities are introduced to liposome platform, which are (1) in vivo imaging probes for optical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), (2) pH and temperature-sensitive lipid moiety, and (3) novel agents for photodynamic and photothermal therapies (PDT, PTT). These conventional and newly tested advantages make the liposome to be one of the most promising nanoplatforms for theranostics.
In conclusion, common reasons for admission of epidemic KS patients include advanced disease, severe anemia, respiratory tract infections, and signs and symptoms of sepsis. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are independent predictors of mortality in these patients.
AIDS-related KS generally involves cutaneous lesions, that slowly progress over months to years. Neither rapidly progressing of KS nor KS complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has rarely been reported.
CONCLUSIONS: The condition of the KS patient could deteriorate rapidly over a period of days and even developeded into HPS, which was life-threatening. However, chemotherapy initiated in a timely manner might improve prognosis. PMID: 32928248 [PubMed - in process]
d A Abstract While Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) was common in the 1980s and early 1990s in HIV-positive patients and one of the most common AIDS-defining diseases, its prevalence today has decreased significantly due to the early and widespread use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (cART) therapy. The rapid initiation of cART or, if occurring during ongoing cART, an optimization of antiretroviral therapy leads to a healing of this tumour disease in most patients. The aim of the therapy is immune reconstitution, as the immunodeficiency resulting from the HIV disease (reduced CD4+-T helper cells) promotes the development...
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 852: Contribution of Human Retroviruses to Disease Development—A Focus on the HIV– and HERV–Cancer Relationships and Treatment Strategies Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12080852 Authors: Ching-Hsuan Liu Nicole Grandi Lalitha Palanivelu Enzo Tramontano Liang-Tzung Lin Animal retroviruses are known for their transforming potential, and this is also true for the ones hosted by humans, which have gathered expanding attention as one of the potent causative agents in various disease, including specific cancer types. For instance, Human T Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a well-studied...
Conclusions: Early KS-PD, including suspected KS-IRIS, was common after starting ART for AIDS-KS and was associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes. Starting ART concurrently with etoposide reduced the incidence of both early KS-PD and KS-IRIS compared with ART alone.
We report the case of a 45-year-old HIV-positive heterosexual male with an unusual presentation of KS in the form of unilateral lymphedema mimicking cellulitis. We also describe the dermoscopic findings of the same.
Conclusion: HIV–infected people with lymphoid malignancies have an increased risk of subsequent non–lymphoid cancers. As risks remained significant after adjustment for time since HIV diagnosis and prior AIDS diagnosis, it suggests that immunosuppression may explain some, but not all, of these risks.
CONCLUSION: We recommend performing a BM aspirate for stains, culture, and biopsy in all HIV patients with DKS, as this will permit the early diagnosis of co-infections and prevent further complications in those who receive chemotherapy. PMID: 32493198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
AbstractLymphoma in HIV-infected patients is AIDS defining. This is the second most common AIDS defining malignancy after Kaposi ’s sarcoma. Development of lymphoma in HIV patients is related to immunosuppression and high viral load. Co-infection with other lymphotrophic viruses especially EBV is also strongly associated with development of lymphoma in HIV patients. Despite advances in HAART therapy, incidence of diffuse la rge B cell lymphoma in HIV-infected patients remains significantly higher than in the general population.Early diagnosis is challenging due to presence of opportunistic infections and atypical pre...