Theranostics Based on Liposome: Looking Back and Forward

AbstractLiposome is one of the oldest yet most successful nanomedicine platforms. Doxil ®, PEGylated liposome loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), was approved by the FDA in 1995 for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, and it was the first approval for nanomedicine. Since then, liposome-based therapeutics were approved for the treatment of various diseases and many clinical tr ials are underway. The success of the liposome-based therapeutics was due to following factors: (1) ease of synthesis, (2) biocompatibility, (3) the ability to load both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, and (4) long circulation property after application of polyethylene glycol (PEG). Recently, mo re functionalities are introduced to liposome platform, which are (1) in vivo imaging probes for optical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), (2) pH and temperature-sensitive lipid moiety, and (3) novel agents for photodynamic and photothermal therapies (PDT, PTT). These conventional and newly tested advantages make the liposome to be one of the most promising nanoplatforms for theranostics.
Source: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research

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In conclusion, common reasons for admission of epidemic KS patients include advanced disease, severe anemia, respiratory tract infections, and signs and symptoms of sepsis. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are independent predictors of mortality in these patients.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Observational Study Source Type: research
AIDS-related KS generally involves cutaneous lesions, that slowly progress over months to years. Neither rapidly progressing of KS nor KS complicated with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) has rarely been reported.
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The condition of the KS patient could deteriorate rapidly over a period of days and even developeded into HPS, which was life-threatening. However, chemotherapy initiated in a timely manner might improve prognosis. PMID: 32928248 [PubMed - in process]
Source: AIDS Research and Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Res Ther Source Type: research
d A Abstract While Kaposi's Sarcoma (KS) was common in the 1980s and early 1990s in HIV-positive patients and one of the most common AIDS-defining diseases, its prevalence today has decreased significantly due to the early and widespread use of chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (cART) therapy. The rapid initiation of cART or, if occurring during ongoing cART, an optimization of antiretroviral therapy leads to a healing of this tumour disease in most patients. The aim of the therapy is immune reconstitution, as the immunodeficiency resulting from the HIV disease (reduced CD4+-T helper cells) promotes the development...
Source: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Clin Hemorheol Microcirc Source Type: research
Viruses, Vol. 12, Pages 852: Contribution of Human Retroviruses to Disease Development—A Focus on the HIV– and HERV–Cancer Relationships and Treatment Strategies Viruses doi: 10.3390/v12080852 Authors: Ching-Hsuan Liu Nicole Grandi Lalitha Palanivelu Enzo Tramontano Liang-Tzung Lin Animal retroviruses are known for their transforming potential, and this is also true for the ones hosted by humans, which have gathered expanding attention as one of the potent causative agents in various disease, including specific cancer types. For instance, Human T Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is a well-studied...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusions: Early KS-PD, including suspected KS-IRIS, was common after starting ART for AIDS-KS and was associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes. Starting ART concurrently with etoposide reduced the incidence of both early KS-PD and KS-IRIS compared with ART alone.
Source: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Clinical Science Source Type: research
We report the case of a 45-year-old HIV-positive heterosexual male with an unusual presentation of KS in the form of unilateral lymphedema mimicking cellulitis. We also describe the dermoscopic findings of the same.
Source: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: HIV–infected people with lymphoid malignancies have an increased risk of subsequent non–lymphoid cancers. As risks remained significant after adjustment for time since HIV diagnosis and prior AIDS diagnosis, it suggests that immunosuppression may explain some, but not all, of these risks.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: We recommend performing a BM aspirate for stains, culture, and biopsy in all HIV patients with DKS, as this will permit the early diagnosis of co-infections and prevent further complications in those who receive chemotherapy. PMID: 32493198 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current HIV Research - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Curr HIV Res Source Type: research
AbstractLymphoma in HIV-infected patients is AIDS defining. This is the second most common AIDS defining malignancy after Kaposi ’s sarcoma. Development of lymphoma in HIV patients is related to immunosuppression and high viral load. Co-infection with other lymphotrophic viruses especially EBV is also strongly associated with development of lymphoma in HIV patients. Despite advances in HAART therapy, incidence of diffuse la rge B cell lymphoma in HIV-infected patients remains significantly higher than in the general population.Early diagnosis is challenging due to presence of opportunistic infections and atypical pre...
Source: Insights into Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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